Congratulations to the all the students who were chosen to represent IU at the second annual Global Partners Research Forum.
Congratulations to the all the students who were chosen to represent IU at the first annual Global Partners Research Forum.
Description of the video:Good. Take everybody. On behalf of organizing partner universities. I welcome you all to our first global research, Global Partners Research form. My name is Rita Korean and I'm Assistant Vice President for International Affairs at Indiana University. I will serve as your host for this meeting and I will be heavily supported by my colleagues. First of all, thanks for making time on a Saturday to discuss Sustainable Development Goals with us. In particular, SDG Number ten, reduced inequality within and among countries. Given our limited time. I will start with a short background, then quickly go to order of things and some technical notes for a successful webinar. Please note that this meeting is being recorded. Also, there will be a unique graphic documentation that people have a chance to see at the end of the needed. With the novel coronavirus, deep systemic inequalities came into sharp focus. Moreover, the need for international partnerships and global education became ever more important. We knew we needed our globe of tinkers, maker San, shakers to build sustainable futures. Accordingly. Indiana University, University of homework, more University, New Castle University, and National Autonomous University of Mexico joined forces and decided to focus on sustainable development goal number ten. Each institution hosted parallel poster competitions and chose their own vendors. We are here together with our wonderful students who will soon present their research projects. As you will hear more during the program, overcoming inequality that the harms of Sustainable Development Goals. We hope that you get energized by the conversation and continue your efforts to make a case for international education and sustainable development framework. Before we start a couple of housekeeping notes, you had the programming, you're welcome. Packages. We invite you to ask questions by using Q&A and the chat box. I want to also mention that we have simultaneous translation available. On the lower right corner of your screen, you will see a small circle that says interpretation. You can click and select the language of your preference. Now it's my pleasure to invite Professor expel, Vice President for International Affairs at Indiana University. Hannah brings a longstanding commitment to international partnerships, research and education, and tireless the promotes global engagement. Please. Thank you, Rita, and hello everyone. It is such a pleasure to see you all here today. I echo read us. Thanks that you have made time over the weekend for this event. And it is just wonderful to welcome you all to this global partners research forum. Our motivation for this event was really twofold. And first of all, the travel restrictions that Cove ID has created really focused our attention on how to continue our work with our international partners in this remote environment. And as I know, we all feel that that work and those partnerships are just such a critical part of our research and learning at IU. And that new facility with zoom and other platforms has at least enabled us to carry some of this work forward. I am very grateful to our partners today and who have joined us in this project. Our colleagues at my New Castle and Hamburg. And we have really appreciated your, your partnership in this, in this project. And the second motivation, of course, is to engage deeply with the UN's Sustainable Development Goals as a focal point for research and learning at Indiana University and everywhere. And I know that my colleague from my who will speak next, we'll spend a little more time talking about the critical contributions that universities make to achieving those sustainable development goals. As Rita says, this year, we at IU have, have sort of chosen goal number ten as our theme, if you will, for the year. Just because global events and also local events in the United States have, have really focus so much attention on various forms of inequality that we continue to grapple with. And in, in this work, bringing students and student research to the forefront was, was really our primary goal. You know, your, your generation is inheriting these systems of inequality that continue to be such a challenge. Again, both locally in our individual countries but also globally. And, and it's very important to two, focus on how to, how to change these framework. So I would really like to thank all of the students who participated in the poster competition and the students who are with us today to present their work, which I am very much looking forward to seeing. And also all of the faculty mentors who worked with the students to, to advance their work. So thank you all so much for the collaboration and for your participation in this, in this project. And I am very much looking forward to the rest of the session. Thank you. Thank you. Our next speaker is Professor of Immunology. Interesting research from many university professors. Me unwind, professor minded thoughtlessness. Thank you very much. I'm very also delighted as Anna has talked about this new norm. So I have a short presentation talking about the SDG framework and its importance in universities. Next slide. I think the sustainable development goals where created in 2012. And the purpose was to produce asset will be in the basil. Google's app could help compact the very agenda. Environmental, political, and economic challenges facing the wall. Looking from the point of view at the VIPs, the people, the planet. There are partnerships, prosperity and peace. Next, right? So in that regard, universities occupy a very unique position within the society. With the broad mandate that they create, co-create, dissemination of knowledge. Universities have long been very Pa, will drive as a global, national and local innovations, economic development and societal well-being. As such, the universe is actually have a critical role in the achievement of the SDGs. And in the next slide, we have areas where universities contribute to SDGs. In our learning and teaching curricula. We have modules in various universities. We also undertake research in the different SDG goals, both as student projects in undergraduate for the MSS students and very deep analysis projects for the doctoral students. We also contribute in the organisation, governance, culture, and operations of the universities. Also external leadership. And in that regard and number of universities including moiety and the University of Nairobi, we actually became members of the sustainable development solutions network universities in Kenya. And we were inoculated last TI Net December. And I am also in the leadership comes on for that next slide. So how to universities helped to contribute fast the provide knowledge, innovations and solutions to the SDGs. But it also creates Heron and future implement as, as we have seen in this forum today. We have students, faculty, and mentors. The universe is also demonstrate how to support, adopt, and implement SDGs in governance, operations, and culture. And lastly, they also develop cross sectoral leadership to guide the SBU response next life. So of course, the universes will also when what the SDGs as his task to do. In that regard, the SDG's create increased demand for SVG related education, training, and even resides. They also provide a comprehensive, globally acceptable definition of a responsible University. Remember, universes are also rang. And one of the things that we want to look at is impact and the social corporate responsibilities. It also offers a framework, as I've demonstrated it, for demonstrating impact. And in many universities where research has gone up to policy level to influence how we do things. It will also help us to create new funding streams. Of course, there are very few in this part of the wall and invaded countries. Universities really have to create the streams of attracting research, grants and funding. It also helps us in advance is to POS tag collaboration with new external anytime or badness. Next. So in the next slide we will see that how do we stack and deepen our engagement with SDGs, either universes. As we do the mapping, what we're already doing. Many buses, arrow comprehensive universities. Meaning that they have all the disciplines ranging from sands, technology, engineering as engineering. So it is possible that in all these curricula databases we are already doing something that addresses one or several of the SDGs. We also build internal capacity and ownership of the SDGs. We identify our priorities, opportunities, and gaps. Therefore, that will also lead us to integrate, implement an embedding the SDGs within universities strategies, policies and plans. And we also monitor, evaluate, and communicate. As universities the actions on the SDGs. Next, like so incongruous shown evidence already is I guess that while many universities promote. Green credentials, fully impainting sustainable sustainability across the university campuses, curriculum and community, and securing the full engagement of academic staff. It is, of course, not without challenge, that the sustainable development goals provide an opportunity to vitalize the institutional efforts in relation to education for sustainable development. I do know that paralleling the sustainable development solutions network of universities has expanded in many parts of the continent. And each of them is beginning to feel the impact and develop policies together with the government, private sector, and all the actors. Next life. So in conclusion, I see thank you very much. We will be available for a Q and a question and answer session. Thank you very much to you. And thank you very much. Professor Mining. Such a comprehensive overview reminding us the opportunities and challenges as higher education institutions that we all have to face. But also to be inspired about. Thank you very much for your review. You will be with us until the end of the event so we can post questions for Professor mining in the chat and the question and answer box. But now it's time for our undergraduate students submit their presentations. I will announce each speaker. They will introduce themselves, can present their research posters that you will see on the screen. Each speaker has five minutes, and we will make sure that each speaker will stay in their designated presentation times. Following the series of presentations, we would have 15 minutes for a short Q, Q and a session. So in in order to stay in time, I will quickly jump into our first speaker. But please keep putting your questions in the chat box. Variables start with Maria pedometer from Indiana University. Please welcome. Hello, and thank you for all the wonderful words that had been shared thus far and special thanks to my faculty advisor, Dr. Jessica O'Reilly, for all her help in working through the challenges of researching. So my presentation is entitled Bloomington Bali and beyond, adoption of climate smart agriculture and global techniques to reduce inequality. And so go worldwide agriculture, agricultural production is expected to face increasing challenges in the next ten years as a result of climate change. And so farmers must adopt climate-smart agricultural practices. Their livelihoods. And, but these changes are not without significant capital and technological barriers exacerbated by inequalities that people are already facing in their lives. And so by examining three case studies from Brazil, Kenya, and Indonesia that emphasize farmer equity and representation in their approach. This project introduces three solutions for farmers in Indiana, my home state, and highlights the importance of mutual knowledge sharing and cross-border cooperation to reduce inequalities for farmers across the globe. And specific and sustainable development goal target indicators of a target ten, or goal number ten, include 10.2456, which you can see on my poster. And so this research draws upon climate-smart agricultural cases. Case studies conducted in southeast Bahia, Brazil, climate reports from Kenya's Ministry of livestock, agriculture and fisheries and Critical Gender Studies in Indonesia, the agricultural sector. And so you can see some of the key challenges faced by small holder and mid-size farmers. In this graphic, we see in this graphic above the environmental, social, and economic, the economic challenges that are faced by farmers. So highlighting Brazil, my first case study, the adaptable technique is agroforestry, which is defined as the intentional integration of trees and shrubs in the crop and animal farming systems to create environmental, economic and social benefits. I mean, there's really an emphasis on indigenous and generational knowledge with this technique. And so the case study was on cow production in Bahia, Brazil as part of the crop diversification program in the traditional cow growing areas, expensive areas are being planted with other crops, mainly clove and mature rubber, rubber trees and to some extent coconut. An agroforestry is a more productive and valuable per acre of farmland by about 36 to a 100% in comparison to monoculture cropping, which is traditionally practiced in the United States. And it is a technique that has been integral to indigenous farming throughout history. The second case study and adaptable technique comes from Kenya's Ministry of livestock, agriculture, and fisheries. And the focus is on knowledge development and technological coordination at a local and low cost level. And so this is implemented then through on-farm research projects that develop and identify, quote, low costs, appropriate technologies and practices and delivers them as packages to farmers. And this knowledge development and coordination provides localized solutions without prohibitive capital requirements, thereby reducing inequality and competition for farmers that might not be able to afford some of the more expensive solutions. And lastly in Indonesia, the adaptable technique is gender equity in our culture. And so teaching conducted through farmer field schools focused on training and empowering women through their art, through their own knowledge and experiences and needs, rather than a top-down knowledge transfer that is so common in this field, I'm going to emphasize is both local solutions for smallholder farmers and encourages women to participate in agriculture as a form of income. Because in many communities around the world, metric traditionally responsible for cash crops and women for subsistence farming. So these farmer field schools work to empower women and train them to engage in this cash crop industry and work towards a more equitable future. And so I hope to leave you with this, this knowledge, that knowledge builds on academic literature gathered by researchers and citizens of the global north is not the only way to create climate solutions. Farming techniques and solutions to reducing carbon emissions from agriculture and restoring livelihoods and environment exist all across the world regardless of one's relation to academia. And so from an American perspective, I think it's time for the United States to not only share its expertise with developing countries, but also learn from the practices of other countries, especially from indigenous peoples, multi-generational farmers. I'm another under and other traditionally under-represented farmers to create a better future for all people and a more prosperous global, global farming system. And so, if we can zoom in, let's see on some of the recommendations that right now, I guess I need to annotate some of the recommendations right here. If that is possible. These are just some of the potential global solutions that can be adapted on a local, national, and then finally, international level from all three areas of the key challenges that I mentioned, mentioned previously. So the environmental, social, and economic challenges. So thank you so much for your time, and I'm happy to discuss my work further. And the Q and a. Maria, thank you. This was fantastic, and it gives us start raising sites. I'm reading CDNs is incredible perspectives on global issues. Our next speaker is Ashwin grew by month or more university. As yours. You pretty relevant. Okay. Hello everyone. My name is shouldn't a bummer, and I'm an undergraduate medical student here from my university in Kenya. And I'll be presenting our project here today with my faculty mentor who is Dr. Patel, who I'm really grateful for her support. So as we know, and which is the central focus for our theme today, the core targets of SDG ten are working towards trying to help empower and ensure a greater inclusivity irrespective of status and trying to create opportunities and bridge inequality's. While at the same time trying to help wider, widened the representation that developing nations have on a global scale. And while we know that education, for example, is already covered in its own. Sdg goal as we have, it's important to understand that the, the, the importance that education can have as perpetual driver of change means that it actually cuts across beyond just its own individual targets. And therefore, if we want to have a conversation about bridging inequality than education must always remain a central focus. And this is actually a fundamental that we took up in our project and chose to adopt, as I will be telling you today. So the project I will be presenting here is the beyond science initiative and more university, which is actually a consortium of scholars in the health sciences who helps to, which helps to foster global cooperation. And a particular emphasis is usually placed on trying to focus on bilateral youth engagement. So that we can be able to sort of help inculcate new ideas of equal participation in these emerging leaders, as has come out already within the keynotes that we've had so far. And this is usually done by active participation within communities to help us better understand the social needs and problems that exist. And therefore working thereafter with for common solutions, especially when it comes to under-represented communities. This in the past has been involving work with street children, women, neglected children, as well as refugees cases. A case in which I will be talking to you about today. So a project that's described in this paper, this poster today was how did the COCOMO refugee camp? The camp was established in 191992 following political and social unrest within the Horn of Africa region. So it's physically located in Northern Kenya. And it's in as much as it's independently operated by the UNHCR, it received significant support for its operations from the government of Kenya as well as from other agencies and NGOs. However, unfortunately, these needs, these basic needs are not always being met adequately. And therefore, there is always some support that needs to be there to help provide complete holistic support and services could be refugees. Therefore, the overall aim of our program was therefore to try and connect with the population within the camp who are currently at a point in their lives such that they can eventually become drivers of change later on within the communities around them where they go to later on. And hence the, and at the same time trying to consider the fact that the PSI team is predominantly composed of young individuals. And therefore, the interaction would be able to allow for free exchange of ideas and exchange of thoughts without any hindrance has been created at any point. Furthermore, we sort of drove an emphasis, as you can see, on the role of education because of the central focus given its need that's fully not yet met even amongst the refugee populations, as we'll see, as well as the fact that it has a transformative impact within the community is that basically goes beyond just life wouldn't account for these youth. So how the program was set up was that it was a mentorship program that has actually helped to sort of connect the PSI youth with the high school students who then the COCOMO refugee camp. So to such our teachers have been conducted thus far. And in each case we use a dual approach where we combine delivering appropriate interventions with the outreach as well as collecting new and resourceful information that helps to bring out specific challenges, for example, that are being faced I viewed. So we use this using delivery of content through skips, discussion forums, as well as one-on-one engagements with the participating youth to help create awareness on some key issues like life opportunities, sharing general experiences of life outside the camp. As well as informational sessions such as basic health education. A better understanding of the education system amongst refugees is actually our focus for this specific that I've described in this poster. And for this, we helped we try to collect as much data as liquid through structured interviews with the key in formance of the education sector at the camp, as well as focus group discussions, which were composed principally of the students who are participating in our program to share their insights. As you can see in the findings are presented here. Some of the key setbacks that are actually amongst the youth that we're pain during the realization of the full educational potential had been described both by the administrative side as well as the students themselves. So generally the youth believe and usually are actually significantly affected by the availability of adequate resources in most cases to help support their education. So this means basics, materials such as uniform study tools, learning materials such as books, as well as the significant amount of time that they end up losing when they're engaged and other responsibilities such as collecting their food and water during ration. Ration times enhance have trimester school. On the other hand, the providers of the education largely feel that they're faced by challenges such as having limited numbers compared to the striven population. That's their restricted opportunities for compensation as well as training, all of which they believe do ultimately influence the quality as well as the distribution of education. If you took the camp. However, even with these setbacks, interestingly, the students remain very enthusiastic. There's a quote that I've actually placed on the poster there at the end, which was one of our participants. And as she reads, He says that nowadays learners are their learners who would stand against the parents, especially the girls, and say that I want to go to school. And if they're not taking the school by parents or parents prevent them, then they go to the agencies because they know that if they have a problem, then they can go to this agency. So in conclusion, in coating and Oxfam paper that was published in 2019, which quarterbacks education is truly a great equalizer. We should therefore try and continue to work with these youths to try and help bridge these resource deficits as we've been best trying to do so far. And after all, it is the length of education as we know, that will not only help to build new capacity and skill, but also help to empower them to ultimately be able to recognize and ultimately also lead the fight against equality from the forefront. Thank you so much. Retire I think yeah. Recap. We couldn't hear you. Could you please repeat what you said? 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Mosquito diva, irreducible laboratory analysis well, that governments unit guest as an investigation 30 if antennae upon that upper-level metadata equally senior project or sociale Drell, pursue attention, which has recipes. Thank you, Miriam. You can hear me now, right. So I would like to open the floor for questions and answers to discuss our wonderful presentations in detail. Now, I see that we have two questions already put in our question box. I will start reading the first one, and I would then give a chance for ashmem to a certainly and then go move forward. Epidemics question. So the first question is as follows, is the cuckoo experienced similar to other refugee camps in Kenya? So from our work has largely just concentrated on the CAC comma camp because that's where we've tried to have a continuous engaging mentorship experience. But I mean the data up camp, for example, is much, much larger and the population distribution, and in terms of the diversity of the groups, there is much more wider. And in terms of the challenges and in terms of P facilities and available resources, they're still being met by the same agencies. So I would anticipate that the youth there would still have some degree of similar challenge is replicated on their end as well. Thank you. The second question is, is a comprehensive one. It goes to professor Mining. The question reads, how do you make sustainable future be equal and have same level of operating ground in all different regions and continents to make to ensure equal chances for sustainability for all. It's a broad question. I will first give a chance for, to professor Mining to answer, but I think this is a chance for all of us to put our thinking and comments in the chat boxes. Whereas in training partisans. Thank you very much for the question. As you rightly put. The question is for all of us. I think in my presentation we talked about mapping the strategies that we already have. And if you look at all the buses and many, we, we usually have a vision and a mission for the university and the enterprise. And what has created the inequalities in many parts of the world, of course, is the divide between the rich and the poor. And it was already evident during the coffee pandemic that when we went back to say, studies can be done online, there are many readers who could not even afford. So indeed, I think every home-grown solution, when we take stock of what we, what we are lacking and how we can partner with our colleagues. From this, the note, the South Asia or Latin America. And I think the universities have that chance because they create partnerships. Thank you very much after you take your professor mining, I think also, in addition to your perspective, what comes to mind is the diversity of perspectives. And not only in terms of expertise, but also the cultural backgrounds that comes with each individual to look at the same problem from multiple different lenses and bring their own creative solutions. And I see big value in collective thinking and partnership in questions that neither us nor institution singlehandedly can result. I would like to remind you that all the posters that I presented now it's available on our website. So if you are missing anything, you can always go back to the website as well as post questions to our presenters directly. We have one more minute designated for a couple more minutes, for questions and comments to our panelists. Have any questions to each other, to their peers? May I ask a very candid question? What was the most typical cards for you to choose the topic amongst all other topics? I can answer that. So Biao, I'll be brief, but yeah, I think that for me is I studied global food systems and so understanding, you know, how, how agriculture and agricultural products are traded. All across the world. I think oftentimes we forget in sort of the large-scale global economy, the to the actual producers are small-scale farmers who create these look or who are part of these local food systems are really the backbone of what a lot of people subsist on. And so I think that being able to understand how climate affects their production and how it's going to undoubtedly affect their production in the future is really important. And nine, My research is just sort of the beginning going into my finally year here at Indiana University it, so I'm excited to continue this research, but I think focusing on something like the climate and how that can exacerbate inequalities is important. And knowing how I decided what I was going to research oriented very much passion there. Would you like to chime in? Yes. And actually, I think for us, how explain is that we have since we've actually started the organization here that we are present here, that's the bjorn sciences initiative. You sort of always had this idea in the back of our mind to try and try and help develop a bridge that helps to sort of bring people together so that their socioeconomic status, their cultural stages, or any of the factor basically wouldn't be a hindrance. Because if you, I mean Kenya as a country, for example, which has divides on either end. And unfortunately, the systems, social systems aren't strong enough to be able to help bring individuals, for example, who are extremely marginalized into the functional systems very easily. And so we've always tried to bring that perspective into all the projects that we do. And this is why actually we even envision this idea. And so when the thin came up about aggressing aspects of inequality, I thought this would be a really good perspective to bring in because not only is a refugee population, for example, truly like they do not, they, they have this sort of pair on an edge at moments. So they don't neither belong to, for example, their host country, but start to save for them to go back to their home country. And at the same time, they still need to continue on with their everyday lives. And if, for example, from forever when it comes to education, they need to continue with their learning. And so that, for example, became a very core area that needs to be addressed for us to truly be able to have a conversation about equality on a global scale. Thank you. Thank you very much. Medium. Do you have anything to add? See, I didn't OK. Varname, impersonal, Chisholm operatory Sudman, Mr. gaseon, who summoned a laggard, I'm guessing University that they've been Samuel docket animals. 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I thank you all putting this much effort and as well as joining us video presentations, it's now trying to give a floor for our graduate student representatives coming from different universities. Cylinder format, I will call each student able do their presentations 15 minutes. At the end of the series of presentations, we will open the floor for questions and answers. Please put your questions in the chat box as well as the Q&A. And with that, the floor is improved. Brains from Indiana University. Hello, my name is April burn. I just graduated from Indiana university with a master in science and environmental science and a Master of Public Affairs. Thank you to my mentor mentoring faculty member, Dr. Nicholas, 0-2 Yannis. So my title of my presentation is environmental justice implications of industrial activity in Houston, Texas. First, I wanted to explain what concrete batch plants are. They produce ready mix concrete for sale to the general public or produces Summit for public works like sidewalks, building construction and airports. Concrete batch plants, or CBP is for short, are known sources of primary particulate matter, which can cause a vast number of adverse health effects such as respiratory, cardiovascular, nervous system, and autoimmune diseases. Primary particulate matter is also associated with negative birth outcomes and asthma and children. What's more in Harris County where Houston, Texas is located? There are no zoning restrictions. Would prohibit industrial plants like CDPS from operating within residential neighborhoods. Unfortunately, many CDDs can be located close to schools, residences, or even daycare centers for young children. Resonance local authorities and public representatives have filed numerous complaints against CBP is however, the Texas Commission on environmental quality continues to authorize and renew permits to operate CDPS even after violations have incited against a plant. You can see here an example of such close proximity to residential neighborhoods in this photo in the center. Harris county has more CDPS and any other county in Texas. At the same time, the percentage of people of color living in Harris County is higher than the rest of the state of Texas. According to a 2018 US census survey, 59% of Texans are people of color, while in Harris County, 71% of residents are people of color. This begs the question as to whether there are disparities in the demographic composition of residents living close to CDPS. So therefore, I used census block group data on income level and race to study the composition of resonance near the CPS. In figure two at the top in the center. You can see that there's a higher percentage of households below the state median income level of $60 thousand in the center of the county, that's depicted by the color red. This shows that there might be a trend of lower income households centered in the center of the county, while higher income households are located on the outskirts of the city. There's also a cluster CDPS, the concrete batch plants in the center of the city as well, depicted by the purple dots. However, when I delineated buffer zones of half-mile in one mile distances from each plant. The demographics of each buffer zone do not clearly identify strong disparities between residences close to CDPS and the rest of the county. If you could scroll down to the bottom and kinda zoom in a little bit, you can see in figure three, black and Latino populations and both zones are only slightly higher than the county level positions. And in figure four, you can see that the percentage of households with annual income below $60 thousand is only slightly higher within the one mile zone than the rest of the county. And you can zoom back out if you'd like. Living within the immediate vicinity of CPP is may pose a major burden on lower income residents because poor air quality can cause health problems which result in higher. Health care costs. In addition, the location of homes close to CP P's can also lower the property values of households, which would make it further challenging for households to exit poverty. If you could zoom in a little bit on the right side, you can see some of my recommendations that I've made to make progress towards the SDG targets, 10.210.310.4, particularly including number one, to enact local policies to prevent distribution of new permits close to schools and residences. Number two, develop a legal mechanism to investigate public health complaints and hold CVP permit holders accountable for violations. I'd also like to continue studying this problem by adding more CP piece to the geo database and also integrating more census data's such as immigration status, education attainment, and what languages are spoken at home. To continue understanding what kind of environmental justice implications there are from these concrete batch plants in Houston, Texas. Thank you so much for listening to my presentation. Thank you April for this very rich data that we have a lot more to think about. Our next speaker is there and become more universally. Barely got the floor is yours. Thank you. As ancient China from my university and I'm PhD students in the department of finance. And my academic advisor for this research is Dr. Andrew Serrano. She's on main am glad, bays wide impression that have farms with higher value, others farms that are really held by men or that tell it by the mean. Because of their knowledge, their skills, and their experiences. These are beliefs that people have. And indeed you find that most of the firms that will look even at a big firms beach in Uganda, between Kenya, between in India. If you conducted as statistics, you'll find that most of these firms are lead by the Mean Sea or the board's game to get to the management majority I laid by the mean. And yet women have a contribution, a great contribution that they make to make, to attain higher firm value. But you find that these remain always lift out. For example, in Kenya and Uganda, there's a call by the captive markets authority that's for you. Well, that's listed firms have gotten to have a site. There's a third rule. So Wonder Woman, three for the board members, but you find that they are not adhering to aids. And this is also in the constitution of Kenya. Even in Uganda is the same. All, most of the countries in the world are having ministries, data. That's for gender and that is to fight inequality of women in the appointment of these higher positions. But we still see that filled the appointments to these bones is actually low. Because of this, the appointment of women in both of the direct as in the two countries, that is Uganda and Kenya, might, might be characterized by a lack of a lack of concrete evidence and remains reprise on women's representations on the board of directors between firms. Therefore, how requested away their view? The one managing our quest for a wider view of the posts. I'm not able to see. Yes, that is beta. That is beta, sorry. So this lab, because this rapid rate of women on the boards of directors in the two countries might because size by a lack of conclusive evidence on the women's contribution on firm value. That's based on the above regiments whisper investigated the difference between women's representation on the Board of Directors, between firms listed in NSC and use and the impact of vagina diversity on the value of firms listed. The degeneracy and use the APA role with the study aimed at determining how inclusions of women in corporate boards affects the value of reset farms in Nairobi and Uganda. And I precisely that it targeted farms that are listed in the Judaic senior dissipating companies that are listed in your bastards, they exchange. And we used the inclusion criteria. We are only funds that had consistently traded for from 2012 to 2019. We included the ones that had been suspended were not included. So it was a panel data was adopted and it was analyzed using the fixed model and the random effects model, the variables in inquest in the study. So that is firm value and biodiversity. February was measured. Us think clearly richer and being bought a MSD using the proportion of women. The results that we have a table one is showing, that's showing the position of women on the board to to represent you in both NSC and use the tempo tuition summary statistics for both NSAIDs. And as we see, on average, the 18 women on these boards in Kenya and 52% of women on these boards, which this, of which this difference is significant. And so both reassuring that the relationship indeed days the relationship between biodiversity and women, women and biodiversity and found value in Uganda. And in Table four is showing us that indeed before, yes. Indeed, it is showing us that. Contribution that both divested mixer and found value is 6% in Kenya and in your garden, it is, it is just for past things, which is significant when in Kenya, it is not significant for us to fight inequality, gender inequality, we may need to be included on these boards as they also contribute to firm value or the economy. So it is a call for companies and for policymakers to indeed see that the enforcement of these laws that according for gender equality is enforced even for companies that are listed on the stock exchanges. Thank you. Thank you. Very radical, right? And some are nice thinker is, you know, ranging from Newcastle University and supports who's now this one? Sorry, Islam. Hi everyone. Thank you for having me here. This is Yao from Newcastle University. My topic is migraine children's education in China's disadvantaged area, privately run Migrant Schools in Guangxi. When you're looking at this hiding, you may be curious about some keywords. Migrate to drink, privately run Migrant Schools. So in order to be more clear about this, life gets started from the background information. Migrant children in this started referred to that rural to urban migrants children in China. And the school we are talking about is a kindof low cost private school that is particularly for migrant children. About 20% of them are starting in the skull like this. The number of students is above three, meaning. So why don't they started in state school? The reason for this two aspects. First is an institutional barrier, full migrant children in some cities, it's what we call, who call systems. Because of this system investing in some cities, the funding for state schools is limited to the migrating to his hometown. Now in their receiving CTs, the info, they can now take the state school in their cities where they are coming to the levy and starling. Second is due to the shortage of, of Kazakh capacity of some state schools in the research that I'm doing my field work. So as a result, private drawn Migrant Schools, all PNS, I'm gonna call it, constitute, constituted a soul educational provision for this group of children. You have to have a better understanding of PNS. We started has three research questions. The first is about the characteristics of PNS. The second is about the role being played by dt in the education of migrant children. And the third one is the challenge they are facing and the candle improvements DEA, despite aspire to. So to answer this question, I use an ethnography approach by adopting full research, massless question Nyos, semi-structured interviews, observation, and need your method. So now let's have a look at what has come out from my research. So there are four research foundings that's related to the SDG goals. Number ten and some other goes. So let's get started. The first is the inferior infrastructures, limited resources like a funding, et cetera, constrain the education quality of PMS. This is linked to the number four dogs. And the second one is voice from the stake holders or PMS is less notate. Therefore, a platform that can empower and invoice privately run migrants, SKU and migrant children is very important. By doing so, we can promote their social and educational inclusion to reduce inequality. This is emphasized by the Number ten. And the third one is the tailored support that can help PMS is really needed at the school level. Some help such as teacher training, that's really capture the reality of PNS is very important. And at the state level, it's very important to have issue some policies that are veiled plant and a management plan that out and then manage that can have the maturation and their education issues. This is also linked to the number ten goes. And the fourth one is, well, the accounting for increasing the state school capacity is very crucial to improve the education quality of PMS. Because a better education is very important to enhance and building a sustainable urbanization in the cities and to contribute a battle life for everyone. Over rho, this research is try to reveal that challenge and the demands on nice of PNS, which is very likely reveal remains invisible fall from the public and officials. And minimum level. I hope this crew Jack can contribute to that discussion about PNS and a mockery children among the groups such as policymakers and NGOs and family regarding my future risk research plan, I hope to have opportunity to cooperate with the local NGO and to help them and the education of macro and children as well. And also, I want to extend my focus to the return migrant children and a left it behind the children who are separating from their parents. Thank you for that. Thank you very much. Out. Before we go to our next speaker, I would like to remind you, if possible, to put your questions into Q&A and put your comments in the chat, chat box. It will be easier for me to follow to Christians in that section. But still I would love to see live above to see the comments in the chat box. Our next big idea, when parents from Newcastle University. Thank you very much. I'm just going to start annotating. Kay. Oops, sorry about that. So my name is little in Paris and I'm a PhD student at Newcastle University investigating deep learning and hybrid remote learning environments. And so we've all been talking about sustainable development goal ten today and the international community's commitment to reduce inequality not only among countries, but also within countries by 2030. At the same time, SDG four expresses a vision that all children have access to inclusive and equitable quality education by 2030. And yet, as we can see from the map at the bottom of his post at my home country, Greece remains one of the very few European countries where major challenges remain towards achieving that goal. 14 thousand pupils in more than 700 small rural primary schools have no access to English language learning, which since the early 19 eighties, has formed a core area of the national curriculum, but only for their urban counterparts. Geographical remoteness and the lack of qualified teachers willing to go and teach that have led to a decades long systemic exclusion of rural children from learning English in primary schools, effectively leading to a status quo that puts them at a disadvantage compared to their urban pads. So a PhD project aimed to address ways of reducing their English language. The English language skills differential between rural and urban students. With the help of digital technology. A low-cost blended learning model was designed combining live lessons with a remote teacher and access to a personalized web-based learning platform. However, the study attempted to go beyond conventional models of hybrid teaching. And in doing so, it dressed could sense that if we fail to account for the development of non-cognitive capabilities, such as emotional understanding, social competence, and identity development. There is the danger of teaching practices and school curriculum leading to a rise of and increasingly impoverished in our identity with huge personal and social consequences. So the present intervention was an attempt to create opportunities for deep learning within the context of the English language curriculum delivered in a hybrid remote format for those schools, once a week for a period of 12 weeks, as we can see from the methodology part here, 47 children across eight small rural primary schools had an opportunity to participate, a, to connect to remote teacher. Participate in internet-based collaborative investigations on topics that were aligned with the curriculum and using authentic content. But they didn't just a grammar and looking at writing structures and conventions. But there was a whole lot of emotional and social discussions that were taking place based on the materials that they were engaging with. While they were also making use of a asynchronous learning platform in their own time and in a self-paced manner. So the entire curriculum is organized around mini-projects, keeping the children opportunities to explore the world through open access simulations and tap into the collective creativity to design alternative realities in future. Now the results showed that after 12 weeks of participation, whoops, I don't know if you can see the, okay. In the blended learning intervention, children's vocabulary, grammar and listening comprehension achievement increase significantly as a function of their engagement with, with web-based learning platform. However, engagement itself appear to be influenced by factors such as the amount and quality of opportunities for meaningful social bonding with bs in the live sessions, working together in groups towards a commonly cherished goal. Opportunities to leverage imagination and creativity, explore and discover and work to design of original ideas and solutions to authentic real world problems. And finally, teacher attributes such as openness, your experimentation. Whoops. And, and, and. And curiosity also emerge as important factors, increasing engagement. So results also revealed the viability and students and the social and human capital. Such as their capacity to self-regulate, and all of which act as moderators of their engagement with a blended program. And therefore, while the evidence from this study overall suggests that a blended remote model holds a lot of potential for making learning accessible to small rural schools in a sustainable way. It also shows that if we are to truly accelerate opportunities for children that have been left behind, then we really need to start talking about how to encapsulate this idea of deep learning within the ways of enacting the curriculum and the curriculum itself in hybrid models. Thank you very much for listening. Thank you for all of the panelists, for being so rich in their presentation, as well as being extremely mindful to the time that we have to think. As you will see now, we have cookbook for questions posted in the Q&A and in order of tanks. I think the first two questions are, is that we have one in the y. Sorry to interrupt. We have one more presentation. I'll I'm terribly sorry, I'm burners. And obviously, our next presentation, our last presenter will be Rashid point from University of homework. I deeply apologize. The floor is yours, Rashi. Thank you so much. Thank you for having me here today. I'm here to talk about my PhD project, which I'm doing that Professor Berger, Director at the University of Hamburg. And one of the things that are lab studies is cataract blindness and why we're interested in this with regards to the sustainability development goals, is that both the cause and effect of inequalities existing in the world today is access to healthcare. And in knobs, in non-modal, is this better reflected than in cataracts, which is the largest and because of untreated childhood blindness in the world today and which is represented disproportionately by the global south and underdeveloped countries. And one of the reasons it's so important to remove cataracts, which are present at birth early in life, is that if they're not removed within the first two weeks of the infant being barn, there will be permanent visual deficits regardless of when you operate. And which is y. Which is why we are interested in why this occurs. So we think that this is because of this phenomenon in the brain called developmental plasticity. Where in the brain is disproportionately susceptible to experience in the first few years of life. And you see this in effects such as language, how it's much harder to learn language later in life. And we also see this in the visual system wherein because of cataracts, if your brain doesn't receive visual input early on in life, even if they're removed later, it's sort of like your brain never learn to see properly. So specifically we target SG, SDG 10.2. And we're looking to, by understanding how this happens, we're looking to include people who formerly wouldn't have been able to participate in social and economic life completely normally. Because if they're preventable blindness, we're looking to include them in everyday life in these countries. So I project is conducted collaboratively at every Posada institute in my home country of India. And what we do is we compare neural development in people who are born with cataracts and then operated lit and people who can see normally. And what we try to compare is specifically this phenomenon, which a normally sighted people is called inhibitory activity. So if you plug up people two electrodes which are completely non-invasive, you see the debris and sort of has these waves between these frequencies to eight to 14 hertz. And you can see in the middle figure in the schematic. What we wanna do is we want to compare this activity between people who were born blind and people who could see normally because we think that this is where the problem is. And what we find is indeed, when you present them with certain stimuli that is designed to elicit. And that kind of activity, you find that the frequencies at which their visual cortex, that is the part of the brain that is responsible for vision. The peak frequencies are different between these two groups, which you see in figure four. So it's sort of like this qualitative driving difference between what we think causes this visual disability. In figure five, you can also see that the quantitative activity between and this brain wave range is higher in people who can see normally. So what we think this reflects is a difference in how the brain developed due to a lack of visual experiences early in life. And why we think this is important is if people have, if people have already not received normal visual input early in life and are operated, we want to be able to understand how to visually rehabilitate them such that the visit, their vision improves. And therefore, we think it's really important to understand the principles behind why this happens. And that is my PhD project. And yeah, I'd like to thank the Institute for collaborating with us to be able to do these studies. And that's my time. Rashi. Yeah. Russian. Thank you again, and my apologies for jumping the gun. But this gives us this gives us a good segue for questions and answers. As I mention to you, the questions posted in the 20 bucks. I would like to address them in the order of costing. As far as I can see, the first two questions are going to Veronica. The first question is actually asking about what factors contribute to the exclusion of women in corporate boards, especially in Africa, African context. And the, the, the question also includes if there are any similarities or differences in other developing countries. In addition to that, I think Marinetti coupled like maybe able to answer. In achieving the SDGs Sustainable girls, what are the key strategies that we should put in place in order to reduce women's inequality in Kenya and Uganda. Thank you so much. Again with the, with the first. Yet, there are a number of factors that contribute to the exclusion of women in corporate boards. But you find that most of these are just traditional feelings of how a woman once before in the African context more so, we know that in Africa a woman was a family, let me say a family servant accordingly to that point. That because we know it's We believe that a Man is the head of the home. So this also wait even outside the families to the treatment the boards that they felt yes. Anything to do with the gap should be by domain. So and they feel they don't have these credentials. You find that most fulfilled. We may not have the credentials of being a board member. That's why you find out when a woman has been given state to be the chairperson of the board, there will have escaped. Men will have a skeptical look. Even on fellow women will have a skeptical thinking about that woman is that money's appointments also factors like such sexual assault. Sexual assault, people just feel the feminine six is weak. They just feel it. But good enough. What is what we are doing today, even as we are doing right now, as we see the pois moderating this coffee savvy mean. So at least now we are trying to fight this. Then also the shareholders themselves of this corporate boards. You see Monsieur, how does lawns mind of how a board is made up whether they are only men or women for their meds, they're interested in is having the return. That is all. So though not care where the woman is in months. So you find that they, they also don't push this thing further. Then also in the past, the laws have been weak, balanced. We now see that beating UC between Africa and the African countries, the laws are now trying to tighten up. You can see of receipts if a, the people, the loss and also the people, the communities, social communities. Now though, people not minding about their appointments, but now we see that we are, we okay? If you look at this structure, the boards and you don't see a woman, people complain and is the current. And the previous one is Twitter, where they did have a female board member and we saw what wasn't twitter, old Facebook who were complaining, you put seats until Twitter had to appoint female director. So there are a number of factors. Yes, some are the same in developed countries as well. That none of the human beings are immune to these things. Down, what are the key strategies that should be put in place in order to reduce women's inequality, especially in Kenya and Uganda. In both in Kenya and Uganda. There's this, when you look at the steady appointments of ministerial appointments of members of parliament, at least the amoebas polyamides data represents a representative of women that is both in Kenya and Uganda. The efforts to seize and versus, when it comes to women, to tool to the ministerial positions, their representatives of those. So what happens when these pockets to superior meets? At least we've seen some laws that I have that are put in place to see that women get on boards. However, they still more need for an evaluation. Why should we still have boots that don't actually have a woman located in Kenya. Look at the banking sector in Kenya. A studies have been conducted where it has been say that women are good financial managers. Why don't we have these many women in In the banking sector, why are we having human positions on the board? I think the government as a subroutine to look into that, the capital markets authority has gotten to look into that and the government has got into support the capital markets authority. Why should a company get on be listed? If he does it, have a woman on that board? I think they need to Gates site tough or needs and we have more women coming up. Thank you. Thank you there Anika. I have two questions that goes to all our panelists. The first one is interesting and I think it is relevant to all of our panelists, is. And how do they feel about SDG ten? Does the worthy in the goal and targets adequate, adequately covered the sorts of inequalities they, that new sediment is it's comprehensive enough, is an advocate for you to think about it. The other question is a little bit also generally, but also future-looking. Are you planning to keep your engagement in the issues that you've discussed, either as a student or a researcher, was an activist in the in your future. You can lease ends and I can I can point to residence. Yeah. Thank you. So the first answer I'd like to give is yeah, I absolutely think the wording adequately covers the kinds of inequalities. And in particular, I'm interested in addressing because very often in the basic sciences we tend to be a little bit further removed from some of the things that we may even directly study. And I think that this covers a lot of the sort of cause and effect phenomenon that you see in things like health care, wherein you see that people have reduced access to health care, which then reduces the likelihood of their problems being fixed to which further thorough goes into the cycle. And I think the wording of the SDG completely covers the sort of perpetuating self-fulfilling prophecy that we tend to see various. Formerly I always thought if these things are startups like cross-section or that you just see these effects. And that's why I think it's interesting. And to answer your second question, yes, I think I'm definitely planning to continue working on problems that try to use basic science to solve more systemic issues. Maggots, when we're perspective. Thank you rushing, this is variance and I could maybe give one suggestion for adding a target that specifically addresses ethical and sustainable methods of producing products. Because I think with a lot of developing countries or developed countries, we might have this mindset that we're already meeting a lot of these targets, but we, as consumers don't really know where our products come from. So I think it'd be a really good target to develop a system to keep private companies more accountable for how these products are produced and how the workers are treated. Tinkering anybody else from the panel. So thank to try and mislead gypsies. Yes. I'm just going to speak to target. 10.2 indicates the Indicates obeying the proportion of people living below 50% of median income desegregated by age, sex, and persons with disabilities. And I think that obviously we need to talk about discrimination that happens against obsolete geographical location at the marginalization that a lot of in children and youth and adults are faced with as a result of where, which part of the country or even the globe they were born in. So I think that's not feel sort of reflected in the indicated for target 10.2. And the second thing is that I want to say that measuring that by financial achievement means alone, I think is likely to raise some problems in terms of how we define including, being included in the social, economic, and political processes of a country or society. Because we need to start talking a little bit more about what really does human flourishing me does come down to financial success alone and perhaps winging it, start thinking a little bit more expansively and broadly in terms of that. And I think there has been progress made in terms of the SDGs with SDG 4.7, for example, that sort of expands the educational project to include via the capabilities OECD as well they've done and work towards that. But I think it is a bit narrow in scope the way I understand it from an educational perspective. Thank you, Lydia, anybody else from the panelists who would like to address those to our general points. Okay. I think there's problem question perhaps we can bring to you specifically addressed the question. That is, what barriers beyond the budgeting excursion public policies face migrant schools in China? This question goes to your rank. And if yo can very quickly put couple of words about this comment question, I would appreciate that, please. Yeah. Yep. Yep. So it's this question from Sue, am I right? Yes. Yeah. Okay. So the question is about deaf PMS help engage in care education for the children. These days. I think I need to clarify night school and starting they are all in there. Pass three Advocate compulsory stage of education, which means in China is the primary SKU and June near secondary school. So squid, one to great NIH, so that I'm not directly relevant to wait, we cannot directly see buys a dia antenna higher education or not. But I think there are some other scholars research can give some information about this. And this is not only because there, what kind of school day are taking such I state school, all PNS and also is relevant to their backgrounds, their capitals, that economic capital, social capital, all the As are you for me, all Yasser factors then cut, cut that can influence what kind of school date gone that do in higher education. And if you, if you have interests and maybe you can check the work by leading me. Why is a scholar in Hong Kong University? And she has done some research about the young, the use, the use my migrant children and also some who choose occasional vocational pathway and we choose the higher an academic education. If you're interested, you can check our work. And nice too is about do they have yeah, they do. They do flute. They had to about a leech legitimated through the accrued at the same thing with the state school. And I think in most cities now they are all got them. They are all like gather, register, wretched, registeration from the local education authorities. They are the same in this, in this level. And how big of a difference would it make between a state and School graduate of PMS and the employee? Yes. It's the same me because I D I didn't say dom directly after their graduate. It but I would say like there could be a very big difference, not only because the school they are taking and also their backgrounds and the other factors help translate Yang Yao question. There's another question for you, but you will send it to you separately. A measure of the amount of time that's nerves. I would like to invite the graphic artist Snow, who has been keeping the visual record our meeting. And they now, could you please join us and show us your creation? I'm very excited. Sure, let me do that. So I'm just going to share my screen. This will take a couple of seconds. Thank you. And we will be able to spend this graphic to all participants in the following days. Absolutely. So there will be, I'll be exploring the visual and then you'll be able to take a closer look. Okay. So here we go. So there's a slight lie. But I'll be zooming in and we'll be telling you a bit about what stuck with me and what I found interesting. So thank you. First of all, to all the presenters. Really, really, really interesting to hear about uploads, exciting projects, and best of luck for your research. And let me tell you what I pick from from your talk. So first of all, welcome from Rita and Hannah and Simeon. And work stuck with me was mostly that you create. Current and future SDG implementers. So you're really in a unique position in society because he don't want me to do mapping and the research and the science behind it. But you can also implemented actually become the change. So that's, I think that's a great opportunity to be in such a position during these times. And then moving on to the undergrad studies, undergrad presentations. And I did a little frame for each of the presentation, starting with Medea. Indiana University. I refers to in Brazil. And the knowledge development. And the main message I took from that was learned from the practices of other countries, especially indigenous. And just putting yourself in the shoes of the people who actually live in the country and work with the soil. I think that was really good. Takeaway. Ashwin presenting on the refugees and northing Kenya an equitable access to education. And that education, such a pivots will drive the change. And that building skills and building capacity is really about empowering children and the people learning. Moving onto Marion and the presentation by indigenous and after the semi communities. And this I thought really interesting because I also worked with, with co-design and design thinking. How can we visual design support under-represented communities? Okay, moving on slightly to the right. It April. Environmental justice of industrial activities. And how such activities, such as making concrete and buildings may approve burden on low income population. And what exactly the numbers tell us about that. Look around because presentation, board and gender diversity. Now that's something you kind of assume that diversity is a good thing, but actually putting numbers in linking the other firm's value, I found really interesting. And having more women and aiming towards gender diversity is rate also has an economic return on investment. Gauss presentation, migrant children's education in China's disadvantaged areas. Main points I took away is that their voices less noticed and that those are inferior infrastructure isn't that really a lot of support is needed? And the two last ones, lydia, on deep learning at a distance. So, so important in every country these days during the covert pandemic. And that blended remote models show a lot of potential, but there's still lots of work to be done. And last but not least, we're actually thank you for that presentation as well. And that's something I really never had heard. It was interesting to learn that given the research of how to visually rehabilitate after conjuncts of blindness. And that the brain develops less if not treated, which can of course have long-term impacts on people and their learning abilities. So this was my salary. And so notes on the side, but I think these robot main takeaways. So thank you again. Pleasure listening to all of you and I will send out the visual women come days. Thank you very much. This is absolutely amazing. Thank you. I know we're running out of time, but I think it would be lovely to have another graphic visual representation of deceiving bid a very quick assume screenshot. Can we do that? Yes. So if everyone could just smile, and then I will take your pick. Great. Thank you. Thank you very much to our Pike news-type presenter. So I translator tile, graphic artists. And also my massive thanks to my colleagues and our fearless global leadership today are just amazing. Here's to celebrate our global thinkers Maker essentially occurs to build sustainable futures. I wish you all the best. Roads cost again, newer, keep working on our individual things. We'll get together again. Discuss Sustainable Futures. Thank you very much. Enjoy the rest of your days. Seems x2 by, by everyone.
Congratulations to the all the students who were chosen to represent IU at the Global Partners Research Forum: Sustainable Future in Focus.