Learn about past events
Read about workshops, lectures, and other events that have taken place at the India Gateway.
Read about workshops, lectures, and other events that have taken place at the India Gateway.
This three-week in-person program was designed to improve the English language academic and communicative skills of underserved first and second-year students in New Delhi. The goals of this program were to prepare the underserved population of Indian students with academic skills for future exchange opportunities, further study, and employment and strengthen the capacity of local English educators.
This in-person meeting critiqued the draft chapters of the Oxford Handbook of Indian Politics. It was being held under the auspices of a Presidential International Research Grant from the Office of the Vice-President of Research at Indiana University Bloomington, and in collaboration with the Centre for the Advanced Study of India of the University of Pennsylvania, New Delhi.
The focus of this virtual workshop was to help the creative instincts of high school students to explore the design and basic blueprints of combining AI with Human Intelligence (HI). They also learned how to design conversation paths and train their own software bots.
Description of the video:
And good night.
The Media School at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) & Jindal School of Journalism & Communication (JSJC) at OP Jindal Global University (JGU) marked the beginning of a teaching and research partnership with a virtual seminar on media and democracy. Faculty and graduate students from both institutions presented their research on the media’s crucial role in democratic governance in the Global North and South.
Description of the video:
From India, everyone Welcome to the media and democracy seminar hosted by Indiana University. I'm the fenestration, the director of IU in their gateway and my colleague menu and I worked to facilitate Academy and research collaborations between Indian higher education institutions and Indiana University. Today we have with us faculty and graduate students from the media School, Indiana University Bloomington and Jindal School of Journalism and Communication, oxygen dial university, Sony, but who will be presenting their research on the media's crucial role in democratic governance in the global north and south. We encourage you to ask questions and interact with the speakers to make today's seminar a productive and engaging session. Thank you so much for joining and I hope you all will continue with such engaging conversations to be yeah. Thank you. Over to you occasionally. Kinds of vena, a very good evening from India there, good morning to the rest of the people who joined us from across the seas and welcome to the first collaborative seminar on media and democracy, as Athena said to mark the beginning of a partnership between the two schools. And thanks to everyone involved to make this happen. I wish she was here, but she's infected with this damn virus. So she is out of if you ask me about what this seminar is about, then I'm willing to fall back to the cliche, excuse me, for a cliche and we know what Bertolt Brecht said when asked that there would be, or could be poetry in dark times and reply about poetry in the dark time said, Will there be singing in the dark times? Yes, there will be singing about the dark times. But what does a journalist, what does a writer, what does an artist do when the medium itself, the language, has been commanded and manipulated by the forces of political and cultural power. Propaganda, for example, on the surface level is the distribution of slanted information today, if not bold-faced, lies with its vocabulary repurposed Orwellian style, perhaps more nefarious today. And it's relentless denials of truth than the crude cries of Joseph Goebbels. And again, excuse me, bear me out because I think we've reached the limits of democracy and democratic authoritarian governments. And when I say limits of democracy, I mean in the name of democracy, whatever is happening, particularly in the country from where I am speaking. Which journalists, which author writing in English today can use words like fake or tremendous without gasping for air while drowning and caveats. And I loved this line, which I'm borrowing from a poet who said that even orange has lost its innocence. Blush. Today, or language or vocabulary our imagination, our words have been denied their meaning. I have been on the roads since the early December last year risking myself, but I went on this tool just to get a sense of what's happening in the country last two years. I've been more or less bound to in my village in Sony, but on the campus of OP Jindal Global University. Now while touring the state support that today's Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, and then the SAM, it appears all is good. Which means all is pretty much chaotic and anarchic as it used to be in India, but as we are used to. But on one hand, you can understand, I think you'd get a sense that there isn't a marquee that's getting used. A different kind of era, a different regime. And by saying different regime, I'm not really insinuating entity, but it is a different India today. We all know what's happening. India's Hindu nationalist government, which has been criticized for silencing descent and undermining independent media with critical journalists have been branded anti-national, the charge on the anti-terrorism laws. And I don't think so. We should hesitate to say that under our present Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, press freedom has deteriorated. Within the dropping 242nd place and the list of a 180 countries second year in a row in the world, press freedom index. Newspapers and television networks critical of the governments have either had their advertisements blocked or their officers raided. Activists have been thrown in jail for organizing peaceful protests. I had this young, not so young now, but I haven't. I knew him. He was really young photographer and Sam who came and met me when I was there and set that give me a job because there is nothing else left here to do. All the newspapers, all television, every single press platform in a same. Unless if you, if you report anything negative against the present Chief Minister of the present government, then in the following week, the norm is for three days, all government advertorials will be withdrawn from you. And that's pretty much almost like a diktat. Now, it has resulted in widespread self-censorship on the part of media. A sectarian agenda critics have said, have accorded many more primetime slots in tune with Hindu nationalist government, right-wing politics. And we all know that Modi has not conducted a single news conference since becoming Prime Minister in 2014. And that's why I'm saying the limits of democracy. In a democracy, the world's largest democracy, the Prime Minister, has refused to meet the press in the last seven years, eight years now. Before an abrupt decision to announce coronavirus lockdown, we know that he met editors and owners of at least 20 major media organizations asking them to publish positive stories. Now this has become the narrative in India. Even the Indian citizens and the viewers. They find journalism, as we understand, problematic because they say, all you talk about are negative stories. We want to hear good things. It is not possible that a government, everything that the government is doing is wrong. There must be some good things that the government is doing. Why gone to tell us the good thing is if you're telling us the bad things and so on and so forth. Because mean, of course it's a particularly dangerous case, the extreme case on the limit case of where India will go with the kind of things Modi is doing. But I would like to flag this out here. A fair assessment will tell us that democratic India had never been truly covered by media. And misinformation or disinformation is not today's ailment. So the way we see this is a new regime, the new era. There's a new way of doing things, but it has never been really as robust as we imagined it to be. And I say this with a sense of responsibility after having spent three decades in Indian newsrooms as a journalist. And I sometimes point fingers at myself for not having done as much as I should have or could have, or as much as we should have or could have. I think this is something that we need to look at rather than pointing fingers. Pointing fingers at ourselves is extremely important. India, maybe the largest democracy, but I rest my case saying that it is not a constitutional democracy me longer, because for it to work. The checks and balances of institutions on the press. It may be a democracy in the sense that the majority rules, that the mob rule is in some sense. But it is not a constitutional democracy in the real sense today. And I think over the next few hours when you discuss about media and democracy, it is to be able to strengthen that institution so that the constitutional democracy can survive. At Jindal School of Journalism and Communication, we make a sincere and spit it an effort, at least I believe we do, in helping students make sense of what is happening around us. The prime responsibility of journalists is to make sense of what's happening around them. Often a lapsed we witnessed in today's world. At j is JCB imagined an undergraduate program in the best tradition of liberal arts that informs us why we need freedom of speech. How do we strengthen democracy? Our pedagogy is dynamic, but no other time can perhaps be as fluid at the time we are in. A time when we must think of the dark times, but a time when we must, in letter and spirit, hold hands and collaboration. I will appreciate if each one of us can ensure that this is not one of seminar and sharing some papers and ideas, but a collaborative process with a sense of continuity. Because I think that is probably the only way or the only roadmap to the future. Thank you so much. And I'm looking forward to the presentations. Times Minow. I think that I'm handing it over to radical now. Thank you and hello everyone, delighted to see you all here. I'll start with on a personal note by saying how wonderful it is for me that my old and current lines are coming together through this, a seminar. I never imagined this would happen when I came here as a grad student almost 30 years ago, right? I did not imagined I would be here facilitating something like this. So personally it's such a meaningful collaboration for me. And as I pointed out, I hope we can view this as a starting point for many more wonderful future collaboration. Not just in research, but also teaching and other types of collaborations. This is a, I would say, the media School here was formed not very long ago, right? We are still a relatively new media school. They represent the coming together. Different departments on campus, from journalism to communication science, to Media Arts in production and cinema and media studies. This is a school that's very committed to the current project that we're exploring. We have scholars across all these units were working on papers that in some way or the other addressed democracy, freedom, citizenship, global citizenship, local citizenship. And more. And to kinda build on what casually talked about, about poetry in dark times. In the US in the last week. There have been a lot of poetic deliberations about the introduction that happened here a year ago. This is the velocity of that introduction. And we'd been, the news media have been conducting some really great analysis of exactly what happened at the Capitol Building a year ago. Why did it happen? Why did mobs takeover? And of course, a lot of the analyses touch on the various topics that we're going to hear from our presenters today. Whether it be a gender, race, class identities, that there'd be disinformation, whether it be how the pandemic might have led to some of the events that have happened, one and so forth. So I just wanted to say, I want to start our deliberation feel by first thanking all the presenters. Without their research, without their poetry, there would be no seminar today, right? So I wanted to start by thanking them. And then of course I want to thank everyone on the Indian side from Jim Dahl to gateway, to the people at Gateway. And then I want to end my tanks by saying, thank you to two very special people here. And that is my colleague, Jim Kelly with whom I have enjoyed collaborating to make this happen. He has spent a lot of time in South Asia and adds a lot of interests in the region. So it was very special that we got to work on this together. And then none of this would have happened at our end. Without the help of Elizabeth. She has been stellar source of resource for us here, pulling everything together. So I want to thank code as well for doing all this wonderful work here today. So thank you Elizabeth for joining us and making making this happen. I'm looking forward to all the presentations and I'll hand it over to Jim Kelly now. Hello. I am Jim Kelly. I am the associate professor and the director of journalism up unit in the Media School. Tibial muted. You're muted. Yes, I think I was saying I'm an expert at technology. Sorry for that as well. I think that you just mentioned that today is an ominous anniversary in the United States. One year ago today, insurgents attacked the US Capitol and attempted to disrupt the transition of power in the year. Since journalists bravely reported extensively on the insurrectionists and their allies in government and even in media. They've reported about the findings of the congressional select committee to investigate the January 6th attack. They have commented upon the parallel those events posed to democracy. They've been countered by commentators on social media who do not share journalist ethics and do not adhere to fact-based reporting and the truth, but instead spread the big lie that a presidential election in the United States was stolen through voter fraud. For 110 years, the journalism program at Indiana University has educated students in the proper conduct and role of journalists. Journalists in a democratic society. We have consistently taught them that the fourth estate is essential to the governance of a free people. And that their role is journalist, is grounded in ethics and regulated by their peers who do not tolerate false hoods or deceptions. Those former students are today doing the reporting that informs us about these threats to our democracy. And we're grateful for their good work. But this sad anniversary in the US also marks the start of an encouraging collaboration with journalism colleges at colleagues at OP. Jindal Global University. And I welcome you here today with excitement. Like erotica, it is good to be back in India. The journalism faculty at Indiana University are 28 professors and lecturers still dedicated to democracy and a free press. That takes its responsibilities seriously and with purpose are teaching prepares our 450 bachelor students for careers in newspapers, magazines, radio and television news programs and all manner of online news outlets. But also as public relations personnel's at corporations and civic organizations that speak honestly and openly about the day's events. They are REG, they regularly when national reporting awards and PR competitions. There are very few major news or public relations firms in this country. We do not have alumni, were proud today to associate with journalism educators at Jindal School of Journalism and Communication, who share our commitment to honest and reliable journalism and Ethical Journalism Education. At Indiana University journalism, about half of our faculty members hold doctoral degrees and engage in research published in national and international journals as well as on the world's most prestigious university presses. They had research institutes, sit on the editorial boards of journals and chair dissertations and theses. Our students in doctoral and professional master's degree programs. The other half of our faculty are professors of practice and lecturers with years and often decades of experience as professional journalists and public relations practitioners. While primarily teachers, they also engage in creative activities including books and reports on pedagogy. And they sit on the boards of professional organizations. Indiana University and the journalism program of long looked forward or headlong lot beyond US borders and engaged in international collaboration. Reaching back to the 1940s, we've recently hosted scholars and visiting journalists from India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kenya, South Korea, the Ukraine and elsewhere. Because we know that our journalists live in a multicultural world of interconnectedness. We regularly send classes of our students to Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America so they can learn from journalism faculty and students with different perspectives. We also host graduate students from around the world, two of whom you will hear present their research in today's seminar. It is for this reason that we look so excitedly at the future where our belief in democracy in journalism can be supported and strengthened by our association with journalism scholars at O P Jindal. I'm excited to learn if your scholarship today and I welcome additional collaborations in the very near future. Thank you and please enjoy yourself. Now I'm turning it over to welcome everyone. Thank you, Provost Kelly. Welcome everyone. I'm Bill Thomas, program coordinator that you inject gateway Delhi. Quickly run through the format for today's seminar. We have four panelists today with three presentations of 15 minutes each, and a chair for each panel. At the end of each panel presentation, there will be a Q&A session for 30 minutes. Please make use of this time to ask your questions and actively participate in this discussion. We request the speakers to keep to the time allotted. And our colleague, Elizabeth from the media School will help you stay on track. At the end of panel trick question and answer session, there will be a half-hour break at 1115 AM EST or 945 PMIS. Just moving on to a few guidelines for today's seminar. Please. Ensure that you mute your microphone and you could use the raise your hand function whenever you want to ask questions. Alternatively, you could also use the chat box to type your questions. We request you to keep your video on as far as possible throughout the workshop. And we also encourage you to stay until the end. But if you do leave and rejoin the seminar, please use the same link which you received in your confirmation email. Please note that we will be recording this session and taking screenshots that may be used on our social media pages. I would now like to handle what those session to crouch radical, pardon me, spring. And the chair for the first set of presentations. Thank you everyone. Have a good day. Hi everyone, just to introduce myself very quickly again, because some people joined a bit later. I'm radical perimeter and the Associate Dean in the Media School. And I'm like to chair the very first panel. And so just because this is Zoom, I want to make sure all our presenters are here. So let's see. Benson. Yes. Okay. Lucida? Yes. And so Kumar? Yes. Okay. Great. Thank you. All right. So let's do the waiver doing the panels is we're going to go in the order that you will that some of you would have seen on the schedule. We're going to start with Benson and then go to Lucida and then so Kumar, I'm going to request each of you to please state the title of your panel and you know, because I don't want to say it. And then people, by the time they come to your presentation, they may forget. So I would request you to state the title of your panel. We have a wonderful set of people feel crisscrossing so many topics from online dating to migrant discourses and to the pandemic. I'm really looking forward to the presentations. The three presenters from the Jindal School today are Bentsen, Rajan, Lucida sand, and so Kumar, motor leader. And I'm really looking forward to our panel. Let's go ahead and get started with our first presenter. Who is Benson? Benson, Are you ready? Yeah. I'm just opening the slides. No problem. No problem. Alright. I'm assuming everyone can see it. Thank you. Alright, let me just start the timer. So good evening and good morning to all the people that I've showed up. So my work is basically looking at online dating. And specifically from the woman's perspective. The study is ground like specifically looking at bumble as the app. Now, historically speaking about online dating, I hope some of us over here can relate with some of the things I'm talking about. Because the 1990s was like probably the first instance where we had a particular app which helped us out in staying in touch with people, especially long distance. So for me specifically, I think these two apps were really important. These chat groups that emerged from the MSN Messenger and yellow messengers were very important to keep my long distance relationship going during school is I think whenever we would have our winter breaks or some outbreaks, I used to spend hours on these and I don't know if others here have also done this. In the nineties were one of the primary species were online intimate relationships had an opportunity to be formulated. In the 2000s, we had the coming off things like Hi-Fi, MySpace are good and Facebook. I did not use awkward, but I was on hyphen Facebook. But again, this was another space where you could form some kind of intimacy and relationship, not for marriage purposes because for that we had a separate set of sites. But what we do have is the like. The past couple of decades, we've had the coming enough tinder bundle grinder happen. All of them have come into the country and they've come in and they've done really well, like in terms of the revenue with the market revenue that they have been able to pull has been insignificant. Like we're only second to United States in terms of the revenue that is drawing, even though the reaches small but 31 million users basis quite big. So what we also have is a kind of normalization of digital dating is taking place now. And I think pandemic has really accelerated that in India. And I realize before I go any further, I just wanted you guys to know that this is this is my proposal to add and this is a nascent stage of my study. I'm just presenting the proposal. Data collection. Nothing has been done yet. So this is just a nascent stage and spoke to through the NGOs on board with it. So this is what it is. So yeah, like speaking about the normalization, there is a significant concern that comes through when we talk about dating practices and culture in India. Majority of the population in terms of gender, is male. When it comes to dating, what we have is like 29% of the users are female, but 67% of the people on the platform are men. This has hampered women's experiences on the apps. Basically, they're bombarded with attention. This list, them feeling intimidated and harassed on there because of the sheer volume of messages that are coming across. And there have been studies done by not an informatics. We speak about eight or ten people have been facing harassment and this is. Of course, supported by National Crime Bureau reports, which support the fact that there is a growing trend when it comes to sexual harassment and exploitation across India. And this trend has been picking up and crime against women has been on the rise. Especially. Now. Also when we talk about reported incidents to the fullest. Like we also understand that there's vast number of cases that are under-reported as well. Especially I mean globally as well, but especially for India. So dead woman centric crimes, cybercrimes that also increasing. So keeping that in mind, we have to remember that the emergence and entrenchment of online dating platforms is coming with implications for women's experiences and gender-based violence in India. This is something that like we've had a few civil society bodies look into it, but there is a center for cyber victim counseling. They've done a report on it as feminism in India, social media matters. These are some other civil society bodies that have worked with this. But there's generally a dearth of work which has gone into really understanding the kinds of intrusion and also the kind of technology facilitated responses. So this is the contexts that I'm trying to set into which the studies of Bumble has come up as one of the most popular apps to do the same like it has over 10 million plus downloads in India. And this on Google Play Store and rotten inside shows that since September 20, 24th, most popular app in India. And it's done so in a shorter amount of time than you would expect. And a lot of it has to do with this marketing strategy. What it has done is it has to be presented itself popularly and explicitly as a feminist app. It's been talking about like it's a space that is used as empowering women. And it's helping overcome archaic misogynistic culture and giving women back the choice and giving equity in relationship. And what, what's interesting if you look at this Datastore data here, what you will notice is if you look at bamboo, you'll see that the blue is female and the black is male. But you see that 24 per cent women are there, in contrast with 70% men. So it seems like this, the narrative, this promotion that they have gone ahead what has worked and which whiskers study also shows that women have moved from Tinder to bumble thinking that it's a safer space based on the way it has marketed itself. And of course, they have inspired enough to have India specific features. One of those is like only allowing first initials and sort of the names. So for women like the stigma associated with independently finding partners, because traditionally it's a task taken on by family based on class, cars, religion. You see that this helps to give them some kind of privacy. And Bumble has been quite successful in drawing a large number of female base because that is also what initially has been struggled to get on this platform. So their marketing is something that got me curious and it's also one of the reasons why I am keen on doing this study. Because it explicitly is marketing itself. Like What's a receipt. Talks about the Whitney Wolfe came out and said it's a 100% feminist, gives more agency to women. And one of the things that they speak about as they have in both technological solution to make it safe for women. And this is again covered in the study by Brian hawk. But this promotion about making the first move is something that they had set is quite niche to their app. I mean, of course now things have changed. But when we thought about making the first move, It's about the conversation initiator. So those that I've used this app wouldn't know that like once a matches set, they're given like 12 hours to initiate contact if the contact is not initiated than the magic spires. So in this consequences, so dividend Hawks work shows that like the logic behind this was, if a woman approaches the guy, it is supposed to be flattering. In contrast to say, man approaching a woman, which is an all. So what they have done is they've tried to play the social technological play that they've done, and they've reversed the gender roles. Because, I mean, this has its problems, which I will just mention. But the idea is the fact that if men are rejected, they become aggressors because they can't handle the rejection. And this leads to a lot of fluid remarks and a lot of aggressive content which are extremely intimately intrusive. In contrast, if a woman has coming, there will be flattered. And of course, this is extremely narrow and stereotyping like and like wise man who is thinking that men are, men can handle rejection. They're aggressors and we were all like naive and like gentle. So what we have is this is the strategy with which they went. And they also talk about other forms of technology embedded tools like they have. Speak about this AI, which is artificial intelligence, which is private detector, which is supposed to detect any load pictures, especially dick pics is what we're talking about specifically, are they automatically draw those out? Again? They also came out with like, we have not only that, they clearly like marketed it, saying that no more dick pics and things. So supposedly creating a safer space. And they also have come up recently with standard for safety, which is safety guidelines for others, women, how to respond to incidences of intrusions and abuse and so on and so forth. However, despite saying, despite all this promoted content, which speaks about how it's a safer space, which has resulted in me, women moving from, say, other dating platforms to Bumble. Media reports clearly show that we went across India, continued to be harassed, stalked, bullied, on dating apps without any recourse from the platform. And this is true for bumble as well. And Dani would lock also comments on this from an Australian perspective where she speaks about how new technologies are providing new avenues for men to inflict violence against women. To texting social media, dating apps and mumbles own study reveals that this is a volume. What is, what is strange about this? I really tried to get more information about the survey that they did, but they don't really specify which app what forms of harassment any of those information is coming forward. So I always have this kind of statistics was pretty much for them to say that they're safer space than other species out there, especially targeting Tinder Kotler, the biggest, the biggest user base here. So some of the built-in ideas about safety that bumble promotes. One, we've already spoken about the initial contact. The other one is about the design. Where safety is, the authenticity. You need to be able to link it with your Facebook account so they can verify. They also have photo verification where you have to take a selfie and it has to match. Apart from that, the regular options you'll find on most of these platforms, which is to report, blog, and then match. However, the concern is the concern primarily which is, which leads to my research question is the fact that like bumble is designed for people to identify, understand, and quickly connect in a very short period of time with someone. And the technological affordances that it promotes and it markets creates this idea of a safe space for women. But women have faced harassment on bamboo. The profiles of the perpetrators keep coming up despite being reported. And there is no change to that, which comments about the efficacy or the platform and creating that safe space. It talks about the lack of accountability of the platform and the inadequacy in addressing these concerns. And overall, it talks about the effectiveness of the apps in terms of affording us safe space for women to date equals footage as man. And with that background is where I come up with these questions. Where I'm looking at what are the safety affordances that we find on bubbles? Do the safety afforded safety features play a role in women's experience? As well as one minute, one minute. Alright. I will do this. My methodology for finding this out as an primarily relying on in-depth interviews. And this is because it enables people to recontextualized the lived experiences of using bamboo. And also give me some idea about the social world of dating that one's navigating through. My Idea is to couple that with a diary. The diary interview method, Bessemer man, is what I'm planning to use as well. Because looking at where agrees work, where she was looking at street interviews, there is a nature of ordinariness or every day next to these type of intrusions. And which is why in her studies she saw that people were struggling to recall instances. So having a diary, as well as using the scroll back method where you basically go through those shared communication tools such as the chats and everything. So it will supposed to help with the recall because these are the historical digital traces we can refer to the parts prints. I'm looking at our 20th female bumble users and thinking saturation will be reached little bit for that age group I'm thinking is 1835 because they are the largest user base for bumble. 72%. That is time. Thank you. These are my references. Alright. Thank you so much for that wonderful paper. And yes, the search in progress, It's totally welcomed, right? Because that's the whole point of this photon. To give people ideas. If we could all use our reactions and give applause to Bentsen because That's what is so missing from the in-person. The audible appreciation. That is what so let me do that myself. Thank you. Benson. I have lots of questions. I'm going to hold back and because my one of my areas of research on gender and media so fascinating. Thank you so much. Let's move on to our next presenter. As Lei pointed out, unfortunately, we don't have subroutine that does BV, sure, well and speedy recovery. So our next presenter then is her co-author, Lucida. And I'll just say the title of the paper. Voices from the margin, mapping, migrant discourses and digital activism. Appreciate, thank you. It's great to be here. Well, I shouldn't say a lot of things at the outset. For one thing, it's great to be talking to friends and the Midwest because that's where, when I can't say that's where I'm from, but that's where my PhD is from. Missouri, Kansas City. And I totally, completely relate to the weather and all of them. So yes, it's great to be here. The other thing I should say, I'm an economist and solute cheese, My Media Studies person who I follow. I am going to try to do this work as much justice as possible. It is intended to be a contribution to media studies rather than economics. And therefore, it's, it's, it's a bit of a challenge for me to really do justice to it. The coping I should say before I begin, is that the title voices from the margin mapping, migrant discourses and digital activism. This is our working title. Working title, why? Because this is the title under which we got our ethics clearance. Just being really honest out there. We've been we had to get ethics clearance really quickly because we wanted to collect data and do it quickly. So that's why the topic is so broad. But by now we have narrowed into one area of research where we're looking at the role of inflammation Leiber and creating trust. But I'll get there and I laid this out properly. The image that you see behind you, behind the screen is by Raj raj of the Hindustan Times. And this is very typical of applauded proliferation of images that came out during the migrant workers crisis. I'm guessing the migrant workers crisis needs no introduction, but I should just give it one anyway. When a national lockdown was declared in India in March 2020, with barely for us notice. It did a lot of things. Primarily it lead to panic. It was certainly a kind of authoritarianism. It was a complete sort of like bulldozing of participative democracy. There was no participation here. And as an economist is the most interesting thing to me about what happened. It's just the invisibility of migrant labor in politics to policy. It is no secret to Indian policy makers that close to almost 70 per cent of our labored is informally. Nonetheless, clearly policymakers took the labor of migrant workers for granted to the extent that the declared lockdown in for us without considering relationships between town and village in India, without considering the need for the village economy. Act as a subsistence background to migrant workers who work in the cities. Picture here is a very famous than each city key picture. And of course we miss him a lot since we've lost him. And here is the Aramco schwa high. He's a migrant worker. He's carrying his five-year-old son on his shoulders and they are walking. One time when we talk about the migrant workers issue, he said something that really stayed with me. He said migrant workers have been walking for a long time. The idea of walking is not so unusual if you are a migrant worker in India, the differences that you can take a bus, sometimes you don't need to walk the entirely. You can rely on informal networks. You can rely on the TBA hours and food joints to give you food, water, shelter if you need it, right. So there are provisions that are available to you if you're migrating in normal times. But when there is a national lockdown, all of that is taken away from you. So you start having exhaustion debts, you start having starvation deaths. Colleagues of ours from the law school. Along with it's an international collaboration. They have collected data on just how many migrant workers died of exhaustion, starvation, and so on during the first lockdown. So here it is that you have an invisibility of labor to policy, but you also have an invisibility of labor in the Indian media since the economic reforms. But suddenly at the time of locked down, what you suddenly have is this proliferation of images, sudden digital media visibility of migrant workers traversing these long distances. And these are called the anime images and they became almost ubiquitous. We started seeing a lot of images are calling upon, calling attention to the suffering and trauma of migrant workers during this time. And when you have a proliferation of images and media, you also start having a proliferation of scholarship. So recent studies have adjust the sudden spurt of media attention to the migrant crisis. Image here is from Ravi child three. It's sticking out from the Delhi UP borders. So I really like this one. I think the nice photo is my favorite, but this one would come close second. So studies that have addressed this sudden spurt of media attention, There's a really nice one by Mohan jade that he talks about the idea of kindness. And he says that the migrant workers discourse, media discourse around migrant workers simply focused on the need to provide food packages, the need to provide relief. And he says that this is an extension of neoliberal governmentality. And he says that this is distracting from the real transformational, structural transformation issues about labor rights. Then there's some other from the calculator research group. He has a really nice essay where he says that migrants returning home is a point of resistance innovate to the idea of the occlusion of borders. During this time of crisis. You have, you have crisis in a neoliberal policy background. And then suddenly you have the borders closing in. And then you have the small by agent who is also seen as a carrier of disease, but it's still moving as some sort of resistance has a critique of temporality and space. Which says, they say that in policy discourse we do not consider, I mean, we tried to say that the pandemic is egalitarian, but some people are more favorable than others. That's the word he uses, solvability. You start having this Just as you start having immediate lead proliferation of images drawing attention to the migrant crisis. You also start having a proliferation of scholarship looking at how the migraine has been discussed in the media. This contributes in part to also further background of digital and political action in India. For instance. That is the idea of how, how has the digital contributed to political action in India? There's new forms of civic engagement. For example, Kumar has a very interesting paper on viral parody and satire as a way of online deliberation. But also the digital has given new kinds of discourse and new kinds of engagement. Too many Indians who can access the digital space. Like there's more expressions of caste, class, regional identity, religion. Now, there's more urine during the anterior protests and New Delhi, there was more of a moral critique of establishment political parties. So you also see the digital brings a change in the political contexts. We are trying to speak to these two streams of literature. It's a conversation in part with the discussion on migraine discourses. And it's also a conversation with the digital within the engagement of the digital and the political right. What are we interested in? We are looking at trust and we are looking at how the digital give, migrant, give activists networks the ability to build trust at a time of crisis. So we are exploring the relationship between To between activists networks. We focused on two so far. And how these activists networks have engaged with migrants. Build trust within an, a sort of a public or a social trust. So trust within their own networks, trust within civil society and trust within migrant workers networks. And uniformed innovate some sort of a bridge between stranded workers and activists groups. So there are two handles that we've looked at primarily, we've so far looked at their Twitter handles. One is the migrant women Solidarity Network, and then the standard Workers Action Network. And both of these have been engaging with the they've been engaging in digital activism, but in different ways. Both have presented reports on just how many standard workers that are, what are the needs of the standard workers? How to provide relief? Swan, which is the standard Workers Action Network in particular developed in a way as a way of engaging with they developed as a way of engaging with stranded workers. So for instance, we interviewed one very prominent local workers activist. And he talked about actually he's one of the founders of Swan. He was connected with the MNR EGN networks. I'm trying to protect my sources and not reveal their names. That's why I'm stumbling. But anyway, so this particular activist, work workers activists, he engaged with them, you know, MNR, UGA job guarantee activists and which who he knew from beforehand because they were doing a joint projects earlier. And he just reached out and said, Hey, there are so many workers who are stranded in this, in this town are at this border. They are in need of cash transfers to which the swan activist, who was, he had previously been friends with this other activists through through other joint projects they've done earlier. So he was able to then send out a message through his activists networks and get like collect funds and transfer them to to workers who were stranded. So that meant that you have this kind of micro crack cash transfers happening across these channels. And this time they're happening on networks like banking systems like BPM and Google Pay and so on. At the same time, you don't doing this requires a good deal of information labor, you have to constantly documented the transfers. You have to maintain a database of these transfers. Workers are sending their account details to these activists who they've never seen or they don't know. The activists, then this uniquely, it's almost a position of power in a way to have someone's account details. So you then, in order to be ethical, you then have to protect those account details. You have to ensure data privacy. And you're just a volunteer activist networks. So that takes a good deal of information labor to ensure data privacy to these workers who are depending on you to transfer them money and help them out so that they're not stranded. Two minutes. A minute show here is that actually a tweet from Swan, standard workers Action Network. And they are, they're making a first appeal for farms and they using the Twitter space to do that. They're saying that, you know, over the last four weeks will be made micro cash transfers to 4,500 plus migrant workers and distress contribute here. You can see here that's one has developed trust within the workers who are trusting them with their account details. And at the same times one is also trusted by that activist and academic and student networks. Trusts want to collect the money and transfer it to the workers rather than, you know, embezzled funds. So there is a certain role of the digital in creating trust and in creating bridges in this multi-class environment. So that's what we're trying to understand. Here's a quote from a private conversation that we had with the swan activist. She says swans main task was to do micro cash transfers to workers. A worker would call us up and say I'm stuck or I'm stuck with x number of people. And then they would just see, okay, how much funds do we have? So let's a lot, three hundred, four hundred rupees per person. And then we would just transfer the amount of this person. It was completely on the basis of trust. We had access to their bank account numbers, we had access to them bio-metric information, to very private information that they would just easily give away, right? So this puts a lot of urine. This is a very unique kind of information, emotional labor that these activists are doing. Many of them are students, many of them are academics, and they have to do this kind of work. So what are we doing? We have interviewed about, well, not too many people yet, but we are interviewing migrant and activist networks. And we've interviewed the m ws and sworn handles the people who are running those. We are trying to interview more people. We're reaching our respondents threw snowball sampling where each person we interviewed suggests three others. Sorry, I'm out of time, let me hurry. And then we'll do a quote. We've extracted all the tweets using are very nice API and we are thematically analyzing them and we'll talk about how they've developed. And we're looking at media reports, including the reports of these two handles and ws and Swan who have bought, made reports and presentations to the governments, to local, state and central governments. So how do they build a social trust? They document the data, they document the information. They present evidence of suffering. And in part, this is where we are critiquing. One that does work, where just a relief itself is also social transformation. Just because there is a provision of relief doesn't make this less radical. You have the building of a multi-class society and abridging of the two. And that itself is radical. That's how clean. And of course, we also have these activists networks also recentering the claims of citizenship, such as this is how they document evidence. So they're saying that he has a migrant labor. He has been he has borrowed 23 thousand rupees to afford travel for himself and family. Money lender is insisting on repayment, so he seeks relief and relief. Payments have transferred to him. You also have said the system migrant worker solidarity network. They are talking about how these workers are making these journeys. They deserve voting rights. So because they're moving, they're often not able to vote. How can we make voting rights available to them while they're on the move? So you can see sort of a demand for trains, demand for relief. So recentering claims of citizenship is also another way of building trust. I'll stop now. Sorry for taking so much time. It's okay. Please wrap up. It's okay. We have a minute to know. Yes. I'm done. I'm done. Okay. Thank you. Thank you so much. Yeah. Excellent presentation. And 1 second, you highlighted something that, you know, it's so interesting to think about when you think about economics and media. And in India, establishing trust like that is really were considered a low trust society, right? Where you just Trust that nothing will work. That's what you trust him dead, right? So to have a situation where this is not just a state organization, but actually a volunteer activist organization. Very interesting paper. Thank you. Let's go on to our next presenter. Darren, and the title of the paper, this pandemic as a transformative moment. Thank you so much. So yeah, that's the title I gave and I just stopped sharing the screen. And I gave a subtitle which is kinda prohibition on it's about it's about the credibility crisis, credibility and creditors, the term I use because I think by alliteration, but the references to financial well-being. So I'm trying to find a better title, but I'm trying to reconcile how in a crisis situation, the media copes with the necessity of a financial liability and what implications that has for its credibility gets public trust. So the figure that I have, of course, the first problem that we have with the Indian media dealing with any kind of large-scale study of being the media is severe absence of for libel data. Now this is not just me saying, so here's a quote from one of the media leaders. I hope you can see the slides. Yeah. Yeah. Okay. So it's an annual conference by one meter chambers of commerce of federation chambers of commerce and industry. It's called 50 frames and this is a quote from the chief executive of the study in my dock on the enterprise, which has a pretty flushing presence in India. So here's what he's seeing. Numbers are supposed to be the foundations of rational business decisions. But how can we make decisions when professionals in the business of numbers can get the numbers straight. The lack of reliable data is not limited to television audience measurement. In fact, saturate certain basic point is that we don't have a very level figures on newspaper readership, on that advertising expenditure on television audience and so on. There's a lot of fiddling around and those, those bills into these, because financial fortunes depend a lot upon finding these figures. So what we did find is that there is an organized sector, which is the advertising and entertainment sector, which does try it together. We are trying to make best use of those figures. One of those sources is, is the annual report produced by the pitch Madison. It's an advertising agency pitch Madison that plays a report which puts together all available data sources and tries to estimate how much money is being spent in the media. Then of course, the keyframes is an annual conference room. They produce a bot, which is done by some major accounting firm, which used to be price for House Coopers earlier. Now it sounds in young, these are the main data sources for that kind of information that you're seeking. Here we heavenly figures a total advertising expenditure in the Indian economy since 2011. And you see the bar is steadily growing from just over, just under 300 billion, the figures on 2 billion to just under 700 billion in 2019. And then you have a sudden drop in the pandemic, right? So what you see here is that the orange part of it, which is the share of the digital advertising and the total, is steadily growing. It grows both in absolute and relative terms and be endemic year. So while traditional media suffers a serious loss of revenue, digital media does not see. And looked at it. Looking at the sector wise, you see that television suffers severe erosion and advertising revenue and pandemic year. The blue bar is 2019 and orange bar is 2020. So to print and print, and in the case of printed, it's near catastrophic. It's like a 40% drop in. And then of course, the radio and cinema also suffer severe drops, but those are not significant concern to us. What is the key here is that digital goes against the trend. Digital still keeps growing, though not as robustly as before. From 32%, growth rate is down to 9.7 per cent. But clearly there's a digital shift going on and does not unique to India. Of course, this has been happening universally all over the world. But the pandemic may have consolidated and accelerated that trend. So here you have the figures as far as buzzing expenditure in the economy by media sectors. And we see that print is kind of close to television up to 2019, but then serve as a severe drop because of the pandemic. And digital for the first time exceeds sprint in the pandemic year. And this kind of showing us strong signs of possibly catching up with television. So keep trends. This is from a different source. The first three slides were from pitch Madison. This is from the three keyframes report. And you see that online gaming and digital subscriptions of lonely sex doesn't have media that are growing. All the others have suffered a significant drop in the pandemic. So that's the, that's where I get the title. Current pandemic is transmitted moment. Not that this was unforeseen, it was a slow moving transition that we were missing, but now we have a sudden catastrophic collapse, almost tough for traditional media and possibly an acceleration of that trend. So of course, the key, another peculiarity of intermediaries over the years has been that the advertising revenue has been far, far ahead. Subscription, always more so than in any other country. That was reversed to some extent, the pandemic here, because the subscription revenue showed significant, kind of, you know, did not drop as, as sharp because if you look at the functions of the media industry over what you put what you call the period of liberal, liberalization and globalization, you had a massive growth in the EU, had significant acceleration, growth rate of the economy. And advertising tended to be ahead of that book. For obvious reasons because I'm tracing targets, the upper income strata, which normally do veterinarians high-growth period. You have that that trend persisting right through these years. The blue bar here is the nominal GDP growth. And the orange, orange line here is the advertising expenditure growth. So when the pandemic year, the nominal growth of economies drops, but not by as much as the advertising. So this is kind of payback for those years of buoyant growth when advertising tended to be ahead of the economic growth curve, but now well below the economic growth. So what does that mean to the newspaper industry, to the media industry generally, and how is it, how have they responded to numerous challenges? On the next slide you see now interpretation, largest state in India heading into an election rather in a matter of months from now. And they've unleashed a major publicity blitz. And here's a difficult news newspaper advertisement that the takeout, there'll be model of COVID control. This came out someone's back. But what's notable about this is that it mimics the format of newspaper. It announces right at the bottom that this is a special kind of editorial feature but mimics the format of each paper. And what's more important perhaps is that it uses, you can see it in decibels small, but all these names, yeah, the bylines that you see here are all of journalists who work with the Times of India and look now. So you are in a sense, giving, lending credibility and creating a kind of zone of ambiguity where real news and advertisements are confused one for the other. So is that going to be the the future of the news media? That's some serious question that we could possibly look at. The distinction between the two kinds of news and editorial. Use an editorial advertisement, the creaky differentiate, of course, these structural appeals. And this applies in both the print and visual media. Stylistic presentation story. And it's placed on me. Overall. Format of media platform influences audience perceptions. But when the Lisman mimics the format of the news stories, then you crave that ambiguity. And you created an ambiguity in which there is scope for fake news to flourish. And if there is a, there is a financial incentive for the news media, the news media industry. Then there are very few impediments to a kind of proliferation of fake news. So what possible remedies could be think of this, come to that. But what does it mean operating now in a new kind of social media ecosystem, which is conditioning our understanding of how news is produced and how it is put together and how it is presented. There's a blurring of lines between professional and citizen and dilution of traditional gatekeeping functions. Now, more and more Germans are taking their cues from social media to figure out what are the stories we should be chasing. So you don't have the guiding hand of the editorial process that determines priorities and new selection and presentation. You have people who are focusing on trends within social media. That becomes the basis on which you we know vast amount possible news and to endure it onto a constricted space. Now the constricted space at one time was the overall duration of a news broadcast or the overall number of column centimetres in a newspaper. But now the constraints, there is no constriction on the space. The space is infinite. The constricted spaces, the attention span of B, audience. So the competition for the audience, which is also at the same time a competition for advertising revenue could lead the newspaper industry into certain kinds of avenues where traditional values or sacrifice and you have a possible contexts for fake news to flourish. So now of course, this is a subject that's being much talked about and there's ventricle. I can offer by way of definitive conclusion and a 15-month presentation. But let me just wrap up by considering two different models of social media, or rather internet-based news dissemination. You have. The Google model. And the Google model of course, has been likened to a funnel. Now I don't think family is a good analogy because implies that everything that goes in at one end comes out the other. What I would see uses a see metafile like a C. There's a lot of stuff that goes in here and you have finer and finer meshes as you go down. And you'll see you out depending upon what your judgment of fi, of the user's interests and the advertisement comes in at the last stage, the finest mesh in that sequence of scenes. And it does kinda unobtrusive. It is text-based. The loud kind of visual display ads that brought the earlier search based advertising went just to grief, no, Yahoo and so on. Start at the back-end load, display advertisements will encounter significant consumer resistance. So Google learned lessons and kinda tailored advertising strategy differently. What is the social media? Facebook, for instance. Facebook entire strategy is based on engagement. It's not on search, son engagement. How long have you there? What are the activities you're engaging in there? And that activity is being monitored every state. It's not just that there's a sitting out of inflection. At every stage you have a mixing up of the advertising and the and the user generated content. So few minutes. Yeah, thanks. So, so to say that the news and advertisement content are now become mixed, would be an understatement. Is there a way of separating with you out? Now, there's a lot of literature coming out on this. I'm looking at recent work by two New York Times reporters. Your friend says He account who wrote about an effort by Facebook to attend to public misgivings about that election interference and the height of an intelligence operative. We'll look at the little operative proposed that it could have possibly the same bacteria applied to advertising as a reply to the organic content, that they should be some untruths. Check. Now this proposal, of course, didn't gain any traction. Immediately shut down because Facebook was not about to, about to jeopardize its most lucrative source of revenue. So one other solution is possible. Facebook has tried algorithmic solutions, techno fixes. Now we know that this cannot be possibly responsive to all kinds of cultural contexts. You cannot have the manpower to develop those kind of algorithmic detection methods. And secondly, there are possibilities that you will mix up because of a lack of familiarity with deep cultural contexts in January. So what I would propose, and of course, this is just the opening kind of effort at arriving at these questions that I can. There is a case to be made for revisiting the free speech fundamentals. Now typically constitutional protections are extended unconditionally to political speed subject to certain limits. But is that true, test feasible for political speech in talked over the years. But I think the question is now mortgage and then before our media platforms oblige to subject earnest. And what forms of liability could be enjoined to secure such an a. So that's where I end and I think I'm out of time, but obviously I'm opening up questions which you will be, which are being debated now and will be debated long into the future. But as the journalists, I guess our main objective should be to ensure that there isn't an adverse outcome from this debate to do the objectives of authenticity and trust and news gathering. Thank you so much. Sorry for exceeding the limit. Time limit. Buy a minute, I guess. Thank you so much took Ahmad and I just want to thank all the presenters again for giving us such a wide variety of perspectives and topics that they've addressed for us to think about. We would like to open it up to questions and perhaps so commodity can stop screen-sharing now. Well, yeah. Is that okay? Yeah. Just tell me. No problem. I stopped them and like them to figure it out. Stop sharing. Okay. Got it. Yeah. Thank you. So now we'd like to open it up to questions. And as you pointed out, you can raise hand. I'm looking at the screen. I have to I'll go back and forth or you can put your question in chat. I would like people to start. You know, please feel free to actively participate. As our presenters noted, these are not complete but works in progress. So whatever feedback you can give would be very helpful to them. Is there anyone? Jim, please go ahead. Yeah. I'm curious question. I'm photojournalists by trade and so I was wondering if you could talk to us a little bit about the media effect. That was the photo journalist. Journalism by folks like Danish CDK and rubbish other clever. Yeah, Thanks. Thanks James. This is a really great question. By-and-large, it seems that photojournalists are among the main drivers of media discourse or the migrant workers issue. And those images played a very important role where you, firstly, you'll see this sort of what do they call it a helicopter view. Not that it was shot from a helicopter. It was not. But you'll see this view of buses and thousands of people jumping on these buses. So one often sees these images of particularly South Asia because these are very popular, a populated spaces that high-population density. So you see these images and you get really stressed out thinking, Oh my God, here are human beings in large numbers in close contact during a pandemic. But you also, I mean, what I love about the niches picture is that he also shows a parental instinct Where that is this father carrying his child on his shoulders. So it also humanizes the migraines. There in the scholarly literature is now divided on the issue of, should we, what are these images doing? They're making us feel sympathy, but are they taking away the attention from the larger transformation of issues? I certainly do not think so. Because When you, I think there's a role for care and empathy as radical. And that is missing from the mainstream literature on the microphone position. Thank you very much. Very nice. Thank you to TDA and I couldn't agree with you, Lord, that the label neoliberal can be applied so easily to so many things, right? And so it becomes a very convenient sort of theoretical framework that you can just apply the various things. And of course, Feminist have long talked about carrying kindness, which are typically seen as feminine qualities, right? And therefore not part of radical discourse. So I, I appreciate what you've pointed out very much. Yes. We have a question from Schober and then didn't show up, please feel free to pose your hi. My question is for Benson, I'm curious to know if you have if you plan on interviewing men for your project and if yes. Why? I mean, how you plan to go about it and if no, why? I would really like to know about that? Yeah. Thank you. No, I'm not trying to introduce men for the study. Primarily, I'm looking at women's experiences of intrusion. And that is to fit in with the larger discourse on feminist criminology as well as dealing with larger Gender Studies discipline. Having said that, yes, I am aware of the fact that men also face harassment. And they are also at the receiving end of multiple abusers. And these are experiences that are extremely real. But looking at the larger context of India and the larger culture of patriarchy and misogyny, think there is a dearth of work done with women and globally also, there's lot more work done with other countries. You have a lot more work than women. But in India, like these are mostly associated with cyber violence, cyber harassment, but hardly any work with dating apps. So which is what I would like to start with women. What did you have anything to add? Yeah. My question did not come from the space of I mean, right now, it did not come from the space of trying to understand the violence that men face. But it came from the space of in the backdrop of the fact that dating is dating, as we talk about it, is a relatively new phenomenon in Indian society. If we can't see, not the dating has not happened before, but dating through an app. As a phenomenon that we understand through say in India, through the pop culture of how it happens in the US or in the other Western countries. So apart from, I think wireless, I feel that there is a lot of general awkwardness associated with the whole process because there is no reference point so as to speak socially. So I'm also curious to understand how menus these platforms. And I feel that if in some ways to understand the violence or how to understand the experiences of women in the platform. Somehow I feel it's, it's, it's imperative to understand how men in India using this. Yeah. And it experiences yeah, I mean, I completely agree with what you're saying because there's this cosmopolitan understanding also of the spaces in which a lot of these apps are being utilized. What was interesting and like my research literature so far, what I was looking for is how the diet to T3 cities are also seeing an explosion of these apps and its usage. But again, similar problems of skewed gender and those issues are quite big. So yeah, I think it's too early for like, based on whatever literature I read, there's not really anything really addressing this. But there is some work we speaks about cosmopolitan realities and how we're living in multiple spaces of modernity. Post-modernity. Some places are just feudal within India itself. So there are multiple negotiations people are undergoing when they're moving between these pieces, for instance, migrating from the urban spaces to the villagers once locked down to place. So these are some yummy, I'll be curious to know as the study progresses. Actually, Benson, there's another question related to your project in the chat. So let me just share it from Kadoorie, right? So she, she asks and says that Bumble has simultaneously been hailed as inclusive and being condemned for being oriented specifically to a heterosexual dating. Does your work intend to look at, you know, look beyond the heterosexual paradigm. Yeah. I mean, there's lots of criticism about like what categories just mentioned. However, I am not planning to go into unplanned. I mean, I'm starting my study looking at heterosexual dating before I go into anything. Because for me there is a literature gap. There's a significant literacy gap even with heterosexual dating. Before I go into the other dimensions. Because we rejoin me and we can you can look at the other side. Yeah. Thank you. Thank you. Appreciate it. Let's have two more hands raised from withdrawn. And then Rama Krishnan, I will go first. Thank you. Thank you. My question is also for Benson and Benson recently, Bumble came out with a set of its own data about what helps you succeed. And I did share that data with you as well. And I was wondering, and it's very curious that the data has been pulled out. I mean, some of it is practical advice like what what information will help you get better matches, like, you know, what jobs do you do or what your interests are, et cetera. Would you like to go for a date? Would you like to go for a coffee? I would like to go for a beer, et cetera. But also things like what zodiac sign gets the most matches. Like, I think for women it was Leo and for men it was Scorpio. This also does say something about our perception of gender and our perception of gender relations. So do you have any insights on this or maybe it's too early to think about it. Thanks for sharing that. That was, that was a fun green because it was just talking about giving practical suggestions about. And it is based on a concept because we have to look at the skew gender ratio in our country. Because they were giving tips about like, what time should you be on the app? And for those that are on the app, it's between seven to 10:00 PM. Otherwise, also, like they were saying like, what are the preferences that works the most? So they're saying like what? Zodiac signs to like, preference for coffee, to like movies, adventure. And so when I was on the app, I had put museums, which is why I think I did badly, but I think it's for us to just written share that with everyone. Thank you. Brent from Rebecca snapped. Can you ask your question? Yeah. Thank you, Rebecca. Thank you all for very interesting presentations. But my question I have one question really, and one remark for humorous presentation. Thank you for that background sigma, but two things. One, in terms of advertorials within Indian journalism especially, and the insidious way in which we can no longer distinguish between what's an advertorial and what's news. I think one of the submissions I have is that to me, a lot of the presentation of editorials in modern Indian journalism today is actually being cross pollinated by methodologies and tropes being used in e-commerce. The way, for example, a certain kind of editorial, editorial is placed within our new space in order to match formats, match presentations, things like that. You will find that a lot of that emerge from the way sponsored items on Amazon, for example, are presented along with our dynamic search for other products that match your search parameters. So that's an even more insidious cross-pollination happening between e-commerce and journalism in the strangest of ways. And that's very interesting to see. I mean, it's a, it's a preliminary thought, but I've been increasingly observing this and your presentation actually triggered this thought a little deeper. The second part is in terms of regulations, regulations and regulatory processes on advertorials. I know, for example, that in the UK, the Advertising Standards Authority has pretty clear rules in terms of how to distinguish an editorial vis-a-vis real news in terms of how you're supposed to mention that it is advertising very clearly and so on and so forth, I think in the United States and please US colleagues, please correct me if I'm wrong, I think the Postal Service actually enforces those rules. The US Postal Service has seems to have a very clear set of guidelines in terms of especially news materials that are transported through the postal service, in terms of how that presentation should be done and how the distinguishing factor should be presented. I don't know if there is one in India. So it occurred to me to ask, is there a process like that in terms of regulatory standards or is it some kind of default? It does. The press council or the who who enforces the rules. Are there any rules at all in India? I'm not sure. It's not an area of really gone into Dino. So commodity You need to unmute. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah, sure. So yeah. Thanks. Very interesting observation about e-commerce and how it can accuse up certain problems for our customers based upon their history of buying behavior. Look at it in terms of the possibilities that it offers for traditional media, they went to limited because you can't achieve that end up precise targeting. Because of the traditional media, both print and television, goes by certain kinds of aggregates. They have an aggregate kind of estimate of what their audience, demographic, response to. The advertiser himself many places and add in a traditional media outlet goes by that very broad aggregate. He's not even for a very specific target. I don't think it's possible for me to achieve that level of targeted. So I know that the advantages of traditional media as it can provide broad context rather than 280 character news. News item. It offers a possible abroad perspective. But in the, in the, in the, in the winnowing process that is led by the hashtag. Each of those large format news reports as being sliced and diced into Canvas. Sub-units, and each of them is being kind of tagged with some hashtag. And so the whole thing is being fragmented and there's a complete loss of contexts. So I think it's a few times we'll have pursued. So you need to get into a different kind of endeavor where you emphasize just want values and seek to, seek to monetize those. How tough that isn't. How many of our news enterprises have the financial resources to achieve that does another question. Of course, our news industry is not very transparent. We can make that estimate without significant insider knowledge. But I think It's something that needs to engage in, not because frankly, the social media, which we all thought would be a great empowering and democratizing influence has kind of turned the other way. Now whether it's social media itself is responsible for that or the underlying socioeconomic, political dynamics are impelling social media in that direction. That's another question. But something that we need to engage with others and personal ads, but instead it's canceled. Yeah, we do have one in India, ascii Standards Council, India. But it's a fairly ineffective, but it's, it's become a lobby for the advertisement. Of course. The other side of the story is that immense concentration that plasma industry, to the extent that there are three conglomerates that control, like coffee, somebody per cent of advertising expenditure on the Indian income. In fact, globally for foreigners. So there is a significant imbalance and asymmetric. And then media industry which is extremely fragmented, tries to get terms from the advertising industry. Thank you. Any other questions? Let me go to the second peak. And if anyone wants to just unmute and speak, please feel free to do that as well. I had a question for Benson. Benson, could you talk a little bit about the founding of bumble? Who are the people behind it. And I could see that some of the advertising definitely has sort of feminist ideals built into them. But could you share a little bit about the founders or the women have, have they expressed their feminism very openly? Could you share a little bit about the ownership side of the political economy of Bumble? Yeah, So Whitney Wolfe was on Tinder. She's the one there was a sexual assault kits and she separated them. There was a settlement and then she formulated bumble. And she has been extremely vocal about this being a different species from that of tender. And that point of differentiation is what drove it to become feminised app, or a 100 per cent feminist app promote. And even in India, this was basically Priyanka Chopra is the one who is driving the, the campaigns and everything for India. And she was, she played a big role in the launch of it. And it has completely, even in terms of people working in Bumble as of now, it's primarily a feminist, feminist female tea, couple of friends there as well. And they are, they are. What, what is interesting that I noticed is the fact that a lot of these things which were seen to be niche with bumble like women first. And those kind of strategies are now even on Tinder. Tinder is using the similar strategies as well. But what do I what differentiates them is the fact that they were the first ones. They were the first ones to introduce that. And it has kind of stayed with them, which has given a lot of the Shorty, do women do assume that this is more of a feminist app? Then say tender or hinge or OkCupid or any of the others. So it's really Wolfe who's the founder, and she broke away from Tinder and alone issue of sexual assault. And she formally to in Bumble. And it has ever since self-proclaimed that is a feminist step. Yeah. Thank you. Bentsen, any requests? I have another question for Shira. I'm unfamiliar with digital cash transfers in India. I'm more familiar with them in East Africa, where it's simply a matter of knowing someone's phone number and they having been registered already in a, usually a cash transfer operation that's run by the telecom in India. Is it more a bank transaction or can you talk to me a little bit about the technology that's used for these transactions. A gym that UPI, PO2, pure chance fluids. So there's Google Pay that is PTM, PTM. Most popular migrant workers will probably, I mean, now they have smartphones. So there has been a bit of a revolution with regard to smartphone technology. I noticed it when I came back from the US and then I realize the proliferation of smart phones and also easy or rather cheap data on the phones which we didn't have and I was a student. There has definitely been a change here. However, with most workers, they prefer their transactions to be through AMPS, which is instant money transfer system, usually through the bank account. So for that, you need both the bank account number and it's something called an IF C code, which is it identifies your bank. The US equivalent would be your routing number. So basically you have to make your account and routing number details available. Yeah, Sure. Come on. That that's actually I mean, I'm just looking at the chat here. He says, WhatsApp has been permitted to start money transfers in India. That's right. And a lot of the workers aren't on WhatsApp. So this will change. But at the time That's one was doing most of the work. They were collecting bank account details. So the cheetah quick follow-up question about your project, which is that you highlighted sort of a structure of care, a structure of kindness that seem to emerge at the time of the pandemic. Could you speak a little bit about migrants have been in, rural migrants have been going to urban India for a long time, right? What is that? A visible or absence of the structures of care in general, you know, on the whole prior to the pandemic? Well, migrant workers sort of on their own. You know, yes, we have the sudden emergence of an NGO focused on helping them economically. But I get the general feeling that they're basically on their own in general, right? So if you could respond a little bit odd on their own for one thing, you know, as soon as she likes to highlight that, there has been very little discussion of labor up to this point between 1991 and up to this point. That itself is a big moment. Then also, swan is not technically an NGO, so it basically known as the m ws. And these are networks of activists. They have been around in the social space for a while doing other things, like say, being with the minority workers, minority pseudo key struggles. They've been active in the MNR EG struggles. They were definitely very active with. They developed something called IP Jan. No, not that leptin, but another kind of we are collecting data and creating databases to make money transfers happen more smoothly. The activist we spoke to who the interview I found most interesting. He was actually involved in the menorrhagia struggles and his vision. He was a migrant worker himself came to Delhi as an electrician, moved back. When he moved back, he found that the mustard rules for the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, they were not up to date. So he had on-the-ground knowledge of the people who were involved in jobs and the muster rolls that were there. And he found a gap between data and reality. And he connected with activists to find out why this gap exists and what he can do to ameliorate this gap. He became an RTI activist for a person who could barely read. He didn't know how to use a computer. He taught himself how to use a computer. So this, this has all kinds of information labor education also happening in multi-class environments where they are learning how to use computers, use information, collect data, or create data and kid with data essentially. Particular, that's very helpful because, yeah, because it looks like this. The example you talked about shows that someone from the community actually helped create this network. And so that also adds to the idea that it's not always neoliberal, right? Or top down. It can also be an organic formation, right? And so that was very helpful. Any other questions? Anybody else? I'm looking in chat as well. Let's see. No, I think I think does anybody have any last comments or so I had a quick question for so Kumara, which is about really looking at the media industries and the advertising industry themselves. Is there an insider industry discourse? About, you know, how do you separate truth out from, from from false claims? And are they trying to address this within, from within without necessarily talking about government regulation or external constraint. Yes, I think that's the approach that everything should be done voluntarily. And why self-regulation and we have press Cancel that just got a fairly long existence in India, but now it's ineffectual lenders is no mandate in terms of television. It has no mandate to regulate television. Television in fact, grew on the blind side of policy. So there was just literally framework that has evolved. It was just a technological development that had its own momentum. Space. So now occupation has half the lots of the laws themselves. Advertising Standards Council of India is the regulatory body for the advertising industry. They do have norms. They do have norms, not portrayal of women in the use of children and so on. But they do have moms. But I don't think the absorbance on these loans has been very distinguished. We know that there's frequent breaches. Just to name one example, the blur fairness, marketing and media, which is, which is a huge market. And there have been activists who've been lobbying for decades and decades to get this stream out of the market or to stop for the aggressive advertising of this, which promotes all kinds of values. But they've had very little success because the, the company, unilever is one of the biggest advertisers in this economy, right? So that's where self-regulation standard this moment. When I am speaking of a truth. That can sound like an invitation to totalitarianism. But, but you know, what I'm suggesting? That's a debate that we need to begin at this time. It's a deviant that we need to begin in the context of our inability to make a successful, successful venture out of self self-regulation. Thank Kumar, and that was perfect. We're on time to move on to our next panel, and I would like to hand it over to Lucida again. Thanks you too. Q we do not have much time. It's 746, so this is where we begin, is an honor and a privilege to be chairing the second panel. We have three excellent presentations before us. We have Elaine, whose work I've been following for a while. She'll be talking about Indiana University's observatory on social media, which would serve as a telescope into the media ecosystem. Ambiguous. We have Jason human talking about a cross national study of perceived news media importance and the social media importance for fulfilling citizens needs. And we have a rigid who will be talking about public perceptions of local journalism as a public good. So we're very excited to hear this excellent session. I will quickly without further ado, I'll turn it over to Elaine. Do you want to share your screen? Yes. Thank you so much. Let me just see what it looks like. It's working. So that's always good. Let me just maximize this window and press Play. Okay. It's so nice to be here with all of you. I'm really grateful to have an opportunity to talk to you about the observatory. I should probably see a little bit about how I come to this project from, as you can hear, I'm from Scotland. Actually a Russian graduates, Oddly. But after graduation, went off at two Reuters into the world of journalism and traveled around the world until the lens it in Indiana 7.5 years ago very happily and continue to love being in Indiana. And my role at the observatory is an education and journalism focused one. I'll be coming at this from that perspective as I can't give an overview rather than a technical insider overview, which is something I'll be happy to help people with if the contact me separately. But we'll be looking at the nature of this organization came to be, how it supports itself and what his goals are. I do just want to touch back on this idea of singing about the dark times. I feel as if the observer city has, like I said in my subtitle, built a telescope into these dark times. And then my fantasy world, Wendy, we will send astronauts eight into this dark time to fix all the problems. But at least for now, we can see them with this observatories. Work. So sorry, there we go. So first of all, we have to talk about how we raise the money for this center to support it. The big breakthrough was when we want to grant from the Knight Foundation. And this is a screenshot of their home page today, but it's kind of interesting that they're focusing on the insurrection as a sort of interesting moments. And these are additional funders. So this is an organization that has many networks, including funders. As you can see, I won't read these all out, but I think it's interesting to see the breadth of support that this work has attracted. These are the people inside that organization here at IU. I do just want to mentioned that we lost our dear by OpenShift on New Year's Day. But this is our lineup of humans who were involved in this organization where that company, as you can see, of investigators, core staff and students. We also visiting scholars who are helping us to look at newsroom needs, which is something of course, the I, as a former journalist at Reuters, I'm very interested in this is a big part of the application of the research that we do at the center. We also have a rather star studded external advisory board to help us keep our focus on what we're doing and provide external insights into what they think we should be looking at. And of course, this includes people from industry, for example, your roles at Twitter. And we have non-profit involvement from, for example, clear warm up first draft. Other philanthropists, for example, Craig Newmark. And so this helps us build our footprint globally as well as in the United States. Again, on this theme of taking a lot of people to do this kind of work. It is a kind of a snapshot, snapshot of the network of humans and organizations that are involved in the work of the observatory. You can learn all about this if you come to our website, which is awesome. Mentioned is the way we refer to ourselves, the observatory and social media. For nice, awesome. Our website, awesome.edu.edu has all of this information and more. And if you want to find out about the work that we do, as well as do some of your own. You can access the tools that have been built at the center by going to this website. And I'll be talking a little bit more about that shortly. This I have to give a little mention to our new building, which is called the lady center for artificial intelligence. And there it is. So what is the absorption social media. So it's a joint project of the Center for complex networks and systems research at the Luddy school I knew and ourselves, the Media School, Network Science Institute of Indiana University. It brings together data scientists and journalists to study media and technology and society and build tools to analyze and counter disinformation. And when the population on social media. This is a brief but where I have to get the journalistic approach, the who, what, when, where, why. This is some of the solid when the timeline of our recent developments. As I mentioned, we want a $3 million grant from the Knight Foundation that money was matched by IU. And my role in all of this is to help with education piece of this work. And as part of that, we've created a concentration in data journalism, which has just reached full approval stage and we'll be launching as we move forward. I'd want to just mention as well in terms of the timeline, we've built something that I hope we'll have relevance for many decades to come. Given all of the huge challenges that we have ahead of us that we're living through now. So this is our mission. And as part of this mission with see ourselves as having city core activities. These are, first of all research. This is the piece that is less in my wheelhouse, but nonetheless of great interest and relevance to the work that we do. And we meet every week all of the co-investigators, which includes me to talk about all the research that's underway and also our conversation that we're having with scholars. I didn't trace the parties around the world as the observatory and tries to lots of attention. Because of its goal, which is, as you can see that it brought. These are some of the core research questions that we looked at. There are many, many of these, but these are perhaps the most important ones. First of all, how can we help news consumers determine the trustworthiness of information and sources? What rule could machine-learning plea and bad? How does the intercalated cognitive social network and algorithmic biases affect the vulnerability of information consumers on social media. Then finally, what are the structural aspects of the media ecosystem that incentivize the viral spread of misinformation. And of course, these are all things that my colleagues at the Media School. I researching. This all comes into play in our discussion and our work. Alright, frozen, just give me one moment. There we go. Okay, so here's just a couple of examples of publications that have come out recently. Are the leader of our research center is Professor for Mintzer, who's over in the wealthy school. And these are some of the work, this is some of the work that he has been focused on. His work has also won a taste of time Award, which is hardly surprising given the long timeline of these problems that we're examining. This is an example of a more detailed kind of zooming in on one particular paper that was published in September. And Nature Communications, which as you can see, find evidence of political bias on Twitter, which was conservative rather than liberal, on resulted from user interactions rather than platform algorithms. So we spent a lot of our time looking at boards and also looking at what human beings are doing and the work that we can do, that you can do, using the tools, can allow you to do some of that same Research, which we'll look at a little bit shortly. Here are some additional publications just to give you a sense of the breadth of the work that is going on. So as you can see, there's work that's being done into looking at both Twitter and Facebook. Audience diversity and mutual liability. I think this is an interesting one as well. For other day, sticky, a game intervention to improve. Newsletter this in social media, which is one of the tools that you can access through our website, allows players to educate themselves on how to support the information online. You'll see there are many names on here that should be familiar to us as so many of these people are Media School faculty. The second part of our areas of focus, first of all, research. Secondly, as I mentioned, tools. So the big idea here is to use social media to allow journalists and citizens to understand information diffusion, detect misinformation, and evaluate the trustworthiness of news and influentials. This includes more than 130 billion tweets. Several public data visualization and machine learning and literacy tools, as you'll see. So these are the tools. Some of the fun ones are. For example, bought a meter. You can find that how bought like your Twitter handle is, I am very unbaked like I'm happy to report or at least I was the last time I checked. You can also check how bought your friends armies using brought to me, sir. But obviously that's not the real intent. The intent is to allow people to look at Twitter and understand how individual handles are behaving works. It allows you to see how misinformation and disinformation spread online. It gives you a visual representation of what that looks like. It allows you to see ecosystems within the ecosystem that buildup around false information, including fact-checkers and people congregating around false information. And it shows you how the system is mutually dependent in a very quick way. One of our more recent initiatives is something called cool vaccine, which allows you to visualize vaccination uptake. Seen against a backdrop of visualization of information online or does it? Here's an example of us vaccine uptake. And you can study it by state and thereby get yourself a quick picture of how vaccination uptake is fluctuating. This is Hooke's see, this is what happens when you go into hook see. It immediately gives you a search interface that allows you to visualize the spread of information around certain tweets or stories, publications. And then finally, this is the part that I'm most important. The third leg, our research center is of course, the education leg. This is the part that I'm excited about. What's all that exciting club, particularly focused on the education side of it. I don't ambition, as it says here, is to position future reporters to uncover newsworthy information that is otherwise invisible to public scrutiny and empower citizens to navigate their weight and formed participatively behavior. As part of this, we have launched, as I mentioned before, a data journalism program with the goal of developing competency and storytelling. Two-minute. A strong emphasis on writing and visual communication is still there. But also adding onto that data science tools and technology. Now of course, this is something we're all interested in, but we're trying to have a very sharp focus on in addition to storytelling, writing and visual communication skills like coding data visualization with, but not forgetting about the importance of ethics. And so on. The way it's organized is that students will work with both Media School faculty and faculty in the school who have expertise in computational linguistics, network science, data science. And there is an additional advantage in the media school because our students will be able to publish their work or at least collaborate with our new Arnold Center front desk. It's journalism. As each student will produce a capstone project. And also will be expected to participate in one high-level industry internship. And that is that is absolutely amazing, Elaine, thank you so much for this fabulous presentation. I have a knack for bonds, so I'm going to just say it, awesome is really awesome. I have a lot of questions, but I'm not going to hold up the floor. So I will transfer it across to Jason. Jason who will be talking about today, pronounce the trade to feel free to correct me. This. He'll be presenting on a cross-national study of perceived news media importance. Social media important for fulfilling citizens needs. Over to you, Jason. Alright, well, good morning, good evening. Thank you for that introduction. I trust you can see my slides okay, In terms of the full screen. Excellent. Thank you. So this was described to me as kind of a meet and greet seminar. So I'm going to approach it in that way with with, without necessarily going deep into research methods and some statistical findings and so forth. Rather, I'm going to talk in broad terms about a key facet of my research agenda over the past ten years or so and outline different aspects of it and where I see it going. And hopefully maybe that spark some ideas and comments and maybe even some interest in collaboration. I would love to hear some of your thoughts in that regard. For its just a few things about myself to get some context. My eye, I am course in the Midwest right now. Chile, Indiana. My roots are in the East Coast of the United States, Philadelphia region, and that's where I lived and worked for time. I actually worked in terms of my journalism background in local public radio. So there's a couple of public radio stations in Philadelphia that most notably I worked with W RTI, but also did some stuff with them, another one, and these are both NPR affiliate. So if you know much about the public radio broadcast, that structure. So that's, that's my background and some of my passions lie both in terms of media, but also, I certainly have a lot of fondness for Philadelphia, but I have been here at IU for six plus years. I'm in my seventh year here in the Media School. And my research predominantly looks at the degree to which citizens have uncertain. And it's certainly relates to questions of trust in public institutions. Now, that doesn't strictly pertain to journalism, but that's where a lot of my focus has gravitated. Journalism as a social institution, but certainly I'm also interested in uncertainty about other institutions. Political trust and so forth. But today I'm going to, I'm going to highlight that facet of my research that really looks on public perceptions and their uncertainty with in some ways, journalism's, journalism's value. So I'll talk a little bit about the origins of it because it informs my research orientation in some respects, even now, the origins of it, they didn't necessarily start in journalism per se. And then I'll highlight some basic insights and talk about future directions. So the concepts that I'm talking about, the idea as what I call perceived news media importance. And so it's certainly, there's a way that I measure this and I'm glad to talk about that. But I'm not stuck on a particular measure. It's more of a research orientation for me, a way of thinking about issues of attitude importance. And so my entry point for this was, was, as I said, not so much journalism, but it was actually, I would say comedy in the vein of Saturday Night Live. When I was kind of waiting into the graduate school seen more than ten years ago. Now, I was really captivated by SNL's parody of then Governor Sarah Palin. And of course, she was the running mate of John McCain in 2008, running against Barack Obama. And so there were parodies and SNL did of paling with Tina Fey, a comedian. And they got a lot of attention. And so I started to do some research and political parody. I was really intrigued by how these, these representations in this form of parody, of imitating but offering commentary in that. What were the implications of how to think about that? And I did some qualitative work on this, but also on this topic of political parody, have done some experimental work and looking at how that may be impacts political trust. But I really kept returning to this idea of parody and political parody. And if you start thinking about that lends itself to thinking about news parody, right? So not just parody of politicians, but parodies of the news format, It's conventions. And in the United States, john Stuart and his daily show